ils - list inode information
ils [-eorvV] [-f fstype] device [start-stop ...]
ils [-aAlLvVzZ] [-f fstype] device [start-stop ...]
ils opens the named device and lists inode information. By default,
ils lists only the inodes of removed files.
-e List every inode in the file system.
Specifies the file system type. The default file system type is
system dependent. With most UNIX systems the default type is ffs
(Berkeley fast file system). With Linux the default type is
ext2fs (second extended file system).
-o List only inodes of removed files that are still open or
executing. This option is short-hand notation for -aL (see the
fine controls section below).
-r List only inodes of removed files. This option is short-hand
notation for -LZ (see the fine controls section below).
-v Turn on verbose mode, output to stderr.
-V Turn on verbose mode, output to stdout.
device Disk special file, or regular file containing a disk image. On
UNIX systems, raw mode disk access may give better performance
than block mode disk access. LINUX disk device drivers support
only block mode disk access.
Examine the specified inode number or number range. Either the
start, the stop, or the -stop may be omitted.
-a List only allocated inodes: these belong to files with at least
one directory entry in the file system, and to removed files
that are still open or executing.
-A List only unallocated inodes: these belong to files that no
-l List only inodes with at least one hard link. These belong to
files with at least one directory entry in the file system.
-L List only inodes without any hard links. These belong to files
that no longer exist, and to removed files that are still open
-z List only inodes with zero status change time. Presumably, these
inodes were never used.
-Z List only inodes with non-zero status change time. Presumably,
these belong to files that still exist, or that existed in the
The output format is in time machine format, as described in tm-
format(5). The output begins with a two-line header that describes the
data origin, and is followed by a one-line header that lists the names
of the data attributes that make up the remainder of the output:
st_ino The inode number.
Allocation status: ‘a’ for allocated inode, ‘f’ for free inode.
st_uid Owner user ID.
st_gid Owner group ID.
UNIX time (seconds) of last file modification.
UNIX time (seconds) of last file access.
UNIX time (seconds) of last inode status change.
UNIX time (seconds) of file deletion (LINUX only).
File type and permissions (octal).
Number of hard links.
File size in bytes.
The first two entries in the direct block address list.
mactime(1), mtime, atime, ctime reporter
tm-format(5), time machine data format
ils should support more file system types. Right now, support is
limited to ext2fs when built on Linux, and ffs when built on Solaris
and BSD systems.
This software is distributed under the IBM Public License.
IBM T.J. Watson Research
P.O. Box 704
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA