grind - process WordNet lexicographer files
grind [ -v ] [ -s ] [ -Llogfile ] [ -a ] [ -d ] [ -i ] [ -o ] [ -n ]
filename [ filename... ]
grind() processes WordNet lexicographer files, producing database files
suitable for use with the WordNet search and interface code and other
applications. The syntactic and structural integrity of the input
files is verified. Warnings and errors are reported via stderr and a
run-time log is produced on stdout. A database is generated only if
there are no errors.
Input files correspond to the syntactic categories implemented in
WordNet - noun, verb, adjective and adverb. Each input lexicographer
file consists of a list of synonym sets (synsets) for one part of
speech. Although the basic synset syntax is the same for all of the
parts of speech, some parts of the syntax only apply to a particular
part of speech. See wninput(5WN) for a description of the input file
Each filename specified is of the form:
where pathname is optional and pos is either noun, verb, adj or adv.
suffix may be used to separate groups of synsets into different files,
for example noun.animal and noun.plant. One or more input files, in
any combination of syntactic categories, may be specified. See
lexnames(5WN) for a list of the lexicographer files used to build the
complete WordNet database.
grind() produces the following output files:
| Filename | Description |
|index.pos | Index file for each syntactic category |
|data.pos | Data file for each syntactic category |
|index.sense | Sense index |
See wndb(5WN) for a description of the database file formats.
Each time grind() is run, any existing database files are overwritten
with the database files generated from the specified input files. If
no input files from a syntactic category are specified, the
corresponding database files are not overwritten.
Senses are generally ordered from most to least frequently used, with
the most common sense numbered 1. Frequency of use is determined by
the number of times a sense is tagged in the various semantic
concordance texts. Senses that are not semantically tagged follow the
ordered senses in an arbitrary order. Note that this ordering is only
an estimate based on usage in a small corpus.
The tagsense_cnt field for each entry in the index.pos files indicates
how many of the senses in the list have been tagged.
The cntlist file provided with the database lists the number of times
each sense is tagged in the semantic concordances. grind() uses the
data from cntlist to order the senses of each word. When the index.pos
files are generated, the synset_offsets are output in sense number
order, with sense 1 first in the list. Senses with the same number of
semantic tags are assigned unique but consecutive sense numbers. The
WordNet OVERVIEW search displays all senses of the specified word, in
all syntactic categories, and indicates which of the senses are
represented in the semantically tagged texts.
-v Verify integrity of input without generating database.
-s Suppress generation of warning messages. Usually grind
is run with this option until all syntactic and
structural errors are corrected since the warning
messages may make it difficult to spot error messages.
-Llogfile Write all messages to logfile instead of stderr.
-a Generate statistical report on input files processed.
-d Generate distribution of senses by string length report
on input files processed.
-i Generate sense index file.
-o Order senses using cntlist.
-n Generate nominalization (derivational morphology) links
filename Input file of the form described in Input Files.
pos.* lexicographer files to use to build database
cntlist file of combined semantic concordance cntlist
files. Used to assign sense numbers in WordNet
cntlist(5WN), lexnames(5WN), senseidx(5WN), wndb(5WN), wninput(5WN),
Exit status is normally 0. Exit status is -1 if non-specific error
occurs. If syntactic or structural errors exist, exit status is number
of errors detected.
usage: grind [-v] [-s] [-Llogfile] [-a ] [-d] [-i] [-o] [-n] filename
Invalid options were specified on the command line.
No input files processed.
None of the filenames specified were of the appropriate form.
n syntactic errors found.
Syntax errors were found while parsing the input files.
n structural errors found.
Pointer errors were found that could not be automatically
Please report bugs to firstname.lastname@example.org.