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       git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters


       git rev-parse [ --option ] <args>...


       Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags (i.e. parameters
       that begin with a dash -) and parameters meant for the underlying git
       rev-list command they use internally and flags and parameters for the
       other commands they use downstream of git rev-list. This command is
       used to distinguish between them.


           Use git rev-parse in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Tells the option parser to echo
           out the first -- met instead of skipping it.

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Lets the option parser stop at
           the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse
           sub-commands that take options themselves.

           Use git rev-parse in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE section
           below). In contrast to the --sq option below, this mode does only
           quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.

           Do not output flags and parameters not meant for git rev-list

           Do not output flags and parameters meant for git rev-list command.

           Do not output non-flag parameters.

           Do not output flag parameters.

       --default <arg>
           If there is no parameter given by the user, use <arg> instead.

           The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid object name.
           Otherwise barf and abort.

       -q, --quiet
           Only meaningful in --verify mode. Do not output an error message if
           the first argument is not a valid object name; instead exit with
           non-zero status silently.

           Usually the output is made one line per flag and parameter. This
           option makes output a single line, properly quoted for consumption
           by shell. Useful when you expect your parameter to contain
           whitespaces and newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe -S with git
           diff-\*). In contrast to the --sq-quote option, the command input
           is still interpreted as usual.

           When showing object names, prefix them with ^ and strip ^ prefix
           from the object names that already have one.

           Usually the object names are output in SHA1 form (with possible ^
           prefix); this option makes them output in a form as close to the
           original input as possible.

           This is similar to --symbolic, but it omits input that are not refs
           (i.e. branch or tag names; or more explicitly disambiguating
           "heads/master" form, when you want to name the "master" branch when
           there is an unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as
           full refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").

           A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name. The option
           core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict abbreviation

           Show all refs found in refs/.

       --branches[=pattern], --tags[=pattern], --remotes[=pattern]
           Show all branches, tags, or remote-tracking branches, respectively
           (i.e., refs found in refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes,

           If a pattern is given, only refs matching the given shell glob are
           shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *,
           or [), it is turned into a prefix match by appending /\*.

           Show all refs matching the shell glob pattern pattern. If the
           pattern does not start with refs/, this is automatically prepended.
           If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *, or [),
           it is turned into a prefix match by appending /\*.

           Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of
           the current directory relative to the top-level directory.

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of
           the top-level directory relative to the current directory
           (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).

           Show $GIT_DIR if defined else show the path to the .git directory.

           When the current working directory is below the repository
           directory print "true", otherwise "false".

           When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the
           repository print "true", otherwise "false".

           When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".

           List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
           repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
           Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value, even
           if they are set.

       --short, --short=number
           Instead of outputting the full SHA1 values of object names try to
           abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is
           specified 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.

       --since=datestring, --after=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --max-age=
           parameter for git rev-list.

       --until=datestring, --before=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --min-age=
           parameter for git rev-list.

           Flags and parameters to be parsed.


       A revision parameter typically, but not necessarily, names a commit
       object. They use what is called an extended SHA1 syntax. Here are
       various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of
       this list are to name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       o   The full SHA1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
           substring of such that is unique within the repository. E.g.
           dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
           same commit object if there are no other object in your repository
           whose object name starts with dae86e.

       o   An output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally
           followed by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a
           g, and an abbreviated object name.

       o   A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object
           referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
           heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master
           to tell git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <name> is
           disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

            1. if $GIT_DIR/<name> exists, that is what you mean (this is
               usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD and

            2. otherwise, refs/<name> if exists;

            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<name> if exists;

            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<name> if exists;

            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name> if exists;

            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD if exists.

               HEAD names the commit your changes in the working tree is based
               on. FETCH_HEAD records the branch you fetched from a remote
               repository with your last git fetch invocation. ORIG_HEAD is
               created by commands that moves your HEAD in a drastic way, to
               record the position of the HEAD before their operation, so that
               you can change the tip of the branch back to the state before
               you ran them easily. MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) you are
               merging into your branch when you run git merge.

               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from
               the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs

       o   A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
           in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour
           1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) to specify the value of the
           ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
           immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
           log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of
           your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master
           branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
           certain times, see --since and --until.

       o   A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
           enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) to specify the n-th
           prior value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate
           prior value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of
           master. This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref
           name and the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>).

       o   You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
           reflog of the current branch. For example, if you are on the branch
           blabla, then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       o   The special construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch checked out
           before the current one.

       o   The suffix @{upstream} to a ref (short form ref@{u}) refers to the
           branch the ref is set to build on top of. Missing ref defaults to
           the current branch.

       o   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
           commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  rev^ is
           equivalent to rev^1). As a special rule, rev^0 means the commit
           itself and is used when rev is the object name of a tag object that
           refers to a commit object.

       o   A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that
           is the <n>th generation grand-parent of the named commit object,
           following only the first parent. I.e. rev~3 is equivalent to rev^^^
           which is equivalent to rev^1^1^1. See below for a illustration of
           the usage of this form.

       o   A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
           (e.g.  v0.99.8^{commit}) means the object could be a tag, and
           dereference the tag recursively until an object of that type is
           found or the object cannot be dereferenced anymore (in which case,
           barf).  rev^0 introduced earlier is a short-hand for rev^{commit}.

       o   A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair (e.g.  v0.99.8^{}) means
           the object could be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively
           until a non-tag object is found.

       o   A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text: this names a
           commit whose commit message starts with the specified text. This
           name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
           any ref. If the commit message starts with a !, you have to repeat
           that; the special sequence :/!, followed by something else than !
           is reserved for now.

       o   A suffix : followed by a path; this names the blob or tree at the
           given path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the

       o   A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
           colon, followed by a path; this names a blob object in the index at
           the given path. Missing stage number (and the colon that follows
           it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common
           ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch's version (typically the
           current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch being

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
       parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.

           G   H   I   J
            \ /     \ /
             D   E   F
              \  |  / \
               \ | /   |
                \|/    |
                 B     C
                  \   /
                   \ /

           A =      = A^0
           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
           C = A^2  = A^2
           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
           E = B^2  = A^^2
           F = B^3  = A^^3
           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2


       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of
       commits, not just a single commit. To these commands, specifying a
       single revision with the notation described in the previous section
       means the set of commits reachable from that commit, following the
       commit ancestry chain.

       To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is
       used. E.g. ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the ones
       reachable from r1.

       This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it.
       When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the syntax
       explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for commits that
       are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1
       r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.

       A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2
       and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the
       set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1 or r2 but not
       from both.

       Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and
       its parent commits exist. The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.
       r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.

       Here are a handful of examples:

           D                G H D
           D F              G H I J D F
           ^G D             H D
           ^D B             E I J F B
           B...C            G H D E B C
           ^D B C           E I J F B C
           C^@              I J F
           F^! D            G H D F


       In --parseopt mode, git rev-parse helps massaging options to bring to
       shell scripts the same facilities C builtins have. It works as an
       option normalizer (e.g. splits single switches aggregate values), a bit
       like getopt(1) does.

       It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to
       parse and understand, and echoes on the standard output a line suitable
       for sh(1) eval to replace the arguments with normalized ones. In case
       of error, it outputs usage on the standard error stream, and exits with
       code 129.

   Input Format
       git rev-parse --parseopt input format is fully text based. It has two
       parts, separated by a line that contains only --. The lines before the
       separator (should be more than one) are used for the usage. The lines
       after the separator describe the options.

       Each line of options has this format:

           <opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF

           its format is the short option character, then the long option name
           separated by a comma. Both parts are not required, though at least
           one is necessary.  h,help, dry-run and f are all three correct


           <flags> are of *, =, ?  or !.

           o   Use = if the option takes an argument.

           o   Use ?  to mean that the option is optional (though its use is

           o   Use * to mean that this option should not be listed in the
               usage generated for the -h argument. It's shown for --help-all
               as documented in gitcli(7).

           o   Use !  to not make the corresponding negated long option

       The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used as the
       help associated to the option.

       Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don't match this specification
       are used as option group headers (start the line with a space to create
       such lines on purpose).

           some-command [options] <args>...

           some-command does foo and bar!
           h,help    show the help

           foo       some nifty option --foo
           bar=      some cool option --bar with an argument

             An option group Header
           C?        option C with an optional argument"

           eval `echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?`


       In --sq-quote mode, git rev-parse echoes on the standard output a
       single line suitable for sh(1) eval. This line is made by normalizing
       the arguments following --sq-quote. Nothing other than quoting the
       arguments is done.

       If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by git
       rev-parse before the output is shell quoted, see the --sq option.

           $ cat > <<\EOF
           args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@")   # quote user-supplied arguments
           command="git frotz -n24 $args"          # and use it inside a handcrafted
                                                   # command line
           eval "$command"

           $ sh "a b'c"


       o   Print the object name of the current commit:

               $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD

       o   Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell

               $ git rev-parse --verify $REV

           This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.

       o   Same as above:

               $ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV

           but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be


       Written by Linus Torvalds <[1]> . Junio C Hamano
       <[2]> and Pierre Habouzit <[3]>


       Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list


       Part of the git(1) suite