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       f2c - Convert Fortran 77 to C or C++


       f2c [ option ...  ] file ...


       F2c  converts Fortran 77 source code in files with names ending in ‘.f’
       or ‘.F’ to C (or C++) source files in the current directory, with  ‘.c’
       substituted for the final ‘.f’ or ‘.F’.  If no Fortran files are named,
       f2c reads Fortran from standard input and writes C on standard  output.
       File  names that end with ‘.p’ or ‘.P’ are taken to be prototype files,
       as produced by option ‘-P’, and are read first.

       The following options have the same meaning as in f77(1).

       -C     Compile code to check that subscripts are within declared  array

       -I2    Render  INTEGER  and  LOGICAL  as  short, INTEGER∗4 as long int.
              Assume the default libF77 and libI77:  allow only INTEGER∗4 (and
              no  LOGICAL)  variables  in INQUIREs.  Option ‘-I4’ confirms the
              default rendering of INTEGER as long int.

       -Idir  Look for a non-absolute include file first in the  directory  of
              the  current  input  file,  then  in directories specified by -I
              options (one directory per option).  Options -I2  and  -I4  have
              precedence, so, e.g., a directory named 2 should be specified by
              -I./2 .

              Compile DO loops that are performed at least  once  if  reached.
              (Fortran 77 DO loops are not performed at all if the upper limit
              is smaller than the lower limit.)

       -U     Honor the case of variable and external names.  Fortran keywords
              must be in lower case.

       -u     Make  the  default  type  of  a variable ‘undefined’ rather than
              using the default Fortran rules.

       -w     Suppress all warning messages, or, if the option is ‘-w66’, just
              Fortran 66 compatibility warnings.

       The following options are peculiar to f2c.

       -A     Produce  ANSI  C (default, starting 20020621).  For old-style C,
              use option -K.

       -a     Make local variables automatic rather than  static  unless  they
              appear in a DATA, EQUIVALENCE, NAMELIST, or SAVE statement.

       -C++   Output C++ code.

       -c     Include original Fortran source as comments.

       -cd    Do  not  recognize cdabs, cdcos, cdexp, cdlog, cdsin, and cdsqrt
              as synonyms for the double complex intrinsics zabs, zcos,  zexp,
              zlog,  zsin, and zsqrt, respectively, nor dreal as a synonym for

       -ddir  Write ‘.c’  files  in  directory  dir  instead  of  the  current

       -E     Declare  uninitialized  COMMON to be Extern (overridably defined
              in f2c.h as extern).

       -ec    Place uninitialized COMMON  blocks  in  separate  files:  COMMON
              /ABC/  appears  in  file  abc_com.c.   Option ‘-e1c’ bundles the
              separate files into the output file, with comments that give  an
              unbundling sed(1) script.

       -ext   Complain about f77(1) extensions.

       -f     Assume free-format input: accept text after column 72 and do not
              pad fixed-format lines shorter than 72 characters with blanks.

       -72    Treat text appearing after column 72 as an error.

       -g     Include original Fortran line numbers in #line lines.

       -h     Emulate Fortran  66’s  treatment  of  Hollerith:  try  to  align
              character  strings  on  word  (or,  if  the  option is ‘-hd’, on
              double-word) boundaries.

       -i2    Similar  to  -I2,  but  assume  a  modified  libF77  and  libI77
              (compiled  with  -Df2c_i2), so INTEGER and LOGICAL variables may
              be assigned by INQUIRE and array lengths  are  stored  in  short

       -i90   Do  not  recognize  the  Fortran  90 bit-manipulation intrinsics
              btest, iand, ibclr, ibits, ibset, ieor, ior, ishft, and  ishftc.

       -kr    Use  temporary  values  to enforce Fortran expression evaluation
              where  K&R  (first   edition)   parenthesization   rules   allow
              rearrangement.   If  the  option is ‘-krd’, use double precision
              temporaries even for single-precision operands.

       -P     Write a file.P of ANSI (or C++) prototypes  for  definitions  in
              each input file.f or file.F.  When reading Fortran from standard
              input, write prototypes at the  beginning  of  standard  output.
              Option  -Ps  implies -P and gives exit status 4 if rerunning f2c
              may change prototypes or declarations.

       -p     Supply preprocessor definitions  to  make  common-block  members
              look like local variables.

       -R     Do   not   promote  REAL  functions  and  operations  to  DOUBLE
              PRECISION.  Option ‘-!R’ confirms the  default,  which  imitates

       -r     Cast  REAL  arguments  of intrinsic functions and values of REAL
              functions (including intrinsics) to REAL.


       -s     Preserve multidimensional subscripts.  Suppressed by option ‘-C’

       -Tdir  Put temporary files in directory dir.

              Dynamically  initialize  local variables, except those appearing
              in SAVE or DATA statements,  with  values  that  may  help  find
              references  to  uninitialized variables.  For example, with IEEE
              arithmetic,  initialize  local   floating-point   variables   to
              signaling NaNs.

       -w8    Suppress  warnings  when  COMMON  or EQUIVALENCE forces odd-word
              alignment of doubles.

       -Wn    Assume n characters/word (default 4) when  initializing  numeric
              variables with character data.

       -z     Do not implicitly recognize DOUBLE COMPLEX.

       -!bs   Do  not recognize backslash escapes (\", \’, \0, \\, \b, \f, \n,
              \r, \t, \v) in character strings.

       -!c    Inhibit C output, but produce -P output.

       i-!I   Reject include statements.

       -!i8   Disallow INTEGER*8 , or, if the option  is  ‘-!i8const’,  permit
              INTEGER*8 but do not promote integer constants to INTEGER*8 when
              they involve more than 32 bits.

       -!it   Don’t infer types of untyped EXTERNAL  procedures  from  use  as
              parameters to previously defined or prototyped procedures.

       -!P    Do not attempt to infer ANSI or C++ prototypes from usage.

       -v, --version
              Print the version number of f2c

       The resulting C invokes the support routines of f77; object code should
       be loaded by f77 or with  ld(1)  or  cc(1)  options  -lF77  -lI77  -lm.
       Calling conventions are those of f77: see the reference below.


              input file

       *.c    output file

              header file

              static link intrinsic and I/O library

              static  link  intrinsic  and  I/O  library  for  use  with files
              translated using the -i2 f2c option

              shared object intrinsic and I/O library

              shared object intrinsic and  I/O  library  for  use  with  files
              translated using the -i2 f2c option

       SEE ALSO
              S.  I.  Feldman  and  P.  J.  Weinberger, ‘A Portable Fortran 77
              Compiler’, UNIX Time Sharing System Programmers  Manual,  Tenth
              Edition, Volume 2, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1990.


       The diagnostics produced by f2c are intended to be self-explanatory.


       Floating-point  constant  expressions  are  simplified in the floating-
       point arithmetic of the machine running  f2c,  so  they  are  typically
       accurate to at most 16 or 17 decimal places.
       Untypable EXTERNAL functions are declared int.
       There is no notation for INTEGER*8 constants.
       Some intrinsic functions do not yet work with INTEGER*8 .