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       etags, ctags - generate tag file for Emacs, vi


       etags [-aCDGImRVh] [-i file] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp]
       [--append] [--no-defines] [--no-globals] [--include=file]
       [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members]
       [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex]
       [--ignore-case-regex=regexp] [--help] [--version] file ...

       ctags [-aCdgImRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp]
       [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--defines] [--forward-search]
       [--globals] [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members]
       [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--ignore-case-regex=regexp]
       [--typedefs] [--typedefs-and-c++] [--update] [--no-warn] [--help]
       [--version] file ...


       The `etags' program is used to create a tag table  file,  in  a  format
       understood by emacs(1); the `ctags' program is used to create a similar
       table in a format understood by  vi(1).   Both  forms  of  the  program
       understand  the  syntax  of  C,  Objective  C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada,
       Cobol, Erlang, LaTeX, Emacs Lisp/Common Lisp, makefiles, Pascal,  Perl,
       Postscript,  Python,  Prolog,  Scheme and most assembler-like syntaxes.
       Both forms read the files specified on the command line,  and  write  a
       tag table (defaults: `TAGS' for etags, `tags' for ctags) in the current
       working directory.  Files specified with relative file  names  will  be
       recorded  in  the  tag  table with file names relative to the directory
       where the tag table resides.  Files specified with absolute file  names
       will  be recorded with absolute file names.  The programs recognize the
       language used in an input file based on its  file  name  and  contents.
       The  --language  switch  can be used to force parsing of the file names
       following the  switch  according  to  the  given  language,  overriding
       guesses based on filename extensions.


       Some  options  make  sense  only for the vi style tag files produced by
       ctags; etags does not recognize them.  The programs accept  unambiguous
       abbreviations for long option names.

       -a, --append
              Append to existing tag file.  (For vi-format tag files, see also

       -B, --backward-search
              Tag files written in the format expected by vi  contain  regular
              expression  search instructions; the -B option writes them using
              the delimiter `?',  to  search  backwards  through  files.   The
              default  is to use the delimiter `/', to search forwards through
              files.  Only ctags accepts this option.

              In  C  and  derived  languages,   create   tags   for   function
              declarations,  and  create  tags  for  extern  variables  unless
              --no-globals is used.

       -d, --defines
              Create tag entries for C preprocessor constant  definitions  and
              enum constants, too.  This is the default behavior for etags.

       -D, --no-defines
              Do   not   create   tag  entries  for  C  preprocessor  constant
              definitions and enum constants.  This may  make  the  tags  file
              much  smaller  if  many  header  files  are tagged.  This is the
              default behavior for ctags.

       -g, --globals
              Create tag entries for global variables in C, C++, Objective  C,
              Java, and Perl.  This is the default behavior for etags.

       -G, --no-globals
              Do  not  tag  global variables.  Typically this reduces the file
              size by one fourth.  This is the default behavior for ctags.

       -i file, --include=file
              Include a note in the tag file indicating that,  when  searching
              for  a  tag,  one  should  also consult the tags file file after
              checking the current file.  This options  is  only  accepted  by

       -I, --ignore-indentation
              Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do.  Currently,
              this means not to assume that  a  closing  brace  in  the  first
              column  is the final brace of a function or structure definition
              in C and C++.

       -l language, --language=language
              Parse the following files according to the given language.  More
              than  one  such  options  may be intermixed with filenames.  Use
              --help to get a  list  of  the  available  languages  and  their
              default filename extensions.  The `auto' language can be used to
              restore automatic detection of language based on the file  name.
              The  `none'  language  may  be  used to disable language parsing
              altogether; only regexp matching is done in this case  (see  the
              --regex option).

       -m, --members
              Create  tag entries for variables that are members of structure-
              like constructs in C++, Objective C, Java.

       -M, --no-members
              Do not tag member variables.  This is the default behavior.

              Only tag packages in Ada files.

       -o tagfile, --output=tagfile
              Explicit name of file for tag table; overrides default `TAGS' or
              `tags'.   (But ignored with -v or -x.)

       -r regexp, --regex=regexp, --ignore-case-regex=regexp
              Make  tags  based  on regexp matching for each line of the files
              following this option, in addition to the  tags  made  with  the
              standard parsing based on language.  When using --regex, case is
              significant, while it is not with  --ignore-case-regex.  May  be
              freely intermixed with filenames and the -R option.  The regexps
              are cumulative, i.e. each option will add to the previous  ones.
              The regexps are of the form:

              where  tagregexp is used to match the lines that must be tagged.
              It should not match useless characters.  If the  match  is  such
              that  more  characters  than  needed  are unavoidably matched by
              tagregexp, it may be useful to add a nameregexp, to narrow  down
              the tag scope.  ctags ignores regexps without a nameregexp.  The
              syntax of regexps is  the  same  as  in  emacs,  augmented  with
              intervals of the form \{m,n\}, as in ed or grep.
              Here  are  some examples.  All the regexps are quoted to protect
              them from shell interpretation.

              Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files:
              --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"'

              Tag VHDL files (this example is a single long line, broken  here
              for formatting reasons):
              --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\
              CONFIGURATION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\
              \|PROCEDURE\|PROCESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/'

              Tag  TCL  files  (this  last  example  shows  the  usage  of   a
              --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/'

              A  regexp  can  be  preceded  by {lang}, thus restriciting it to
              match lines of files  of  the  specified  language.   Use  etags
              --help  to  obtain  a  list  of  the recognised languages.  This
              feature is particularly useful inside regex files.  A regex file
              contains  one  regex  per  line.   Empty  lines, and those lines
              beginning with space or tab are ignored.  Lines beginning with @
              are  references  to  regex  files whose name follows the @ sign.
              Other  lines  are  considered  regular  expressions  like  those
              following --regex.
              For example, the command
              etags --regex=@regex.file *.c
              reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file.

       -R, --no-regex
              Don't  do  any more regexp matching on the following files.  May
              be freely intermixed with filenames and the --regex option.

       -t, --typedefs
              Record typedefs in C code as tags.  Since this  is  the  default
              behaviour of etags, only ctags accepts this option.

       -T, --typedefs-and-c++
              Generate tag entries for typedefs, struct, enum, and union tags,
              and C++ member functions.  Since this is the  default  behaviour
              of etags, only ctags accepts this option.

       -u, --update
              Update  tag entries for files specified on command line, leaving
              tag entries for  other  files  in  place.   Currently,  this  is
              implemented by deleting the existing entries for the given files
              and then rewriting the new entries at the end of the tags  file.
              It is often faster to simply rebuild the entire tag file than to
              use this.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -v, --vgrind
              Instead of generating a tag file, write index (in vgrind format)
              to standard output.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -w, --no-warn
              Suppress  warning  messages  about duplicate entries.  The etags
              program does not check for duplicate entries, so this option  is
              not allowed with it.

       -x, --cxref
              Instead  of  generating  a tag file, write a cross reference (in
              cxref format) to  standard  output.   Only  ctags  accepts  this

       -h, -H, --help
              Print usage information.

       -V, --version
              Print the current version of the program (same as the version of
              the emacs etags is shipped with).


       `emacs' entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman.
       cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).


       Copyright (c) 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
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       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       manual  under  the  conditions  for verbatim copying, provided that the
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       Permission  is  granted  to  copy  and  distribute translations of this
       manual into another language, under the above conditions  for  modified
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       translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the
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