ERESI - The ERESI Reverse Engineering Software Interface
The ERESI Reverse Engineering Software Interface is a unified reverse
engineering framework for UNIX operating systems based on the
Executable & Linking Format (ELF) such as Linux, BSD, Solaris, IRIX,
and BeOS. It has a command line interface that make it useful remotely,
and can generate graph images from code analysis on demand. It has a
real dedicated reverse engineering language that makes it scriptable
and adaptable to the precise needs of the users. ERESI contains more
than 10 innovative and exclusive features that turns it into an
environment of choice for the instrumentation, analysis, debugging,
tracing, hooking, or simply integrity checking and events logging of
binary programs. ERESI is composed of ELFsh (the ELF shell), E2dbg (The
Embedded ELF debugger) and Etrace (The Embedded ELF tracer). This
documentation applies on all of the components.
The ELF shell (part of ERESI) can take the following command line
-f input file
-w output file
Note that the command line is slightly different for E2dbg and
Etrace which do NOT take those parameters.
E2dbg and Etrace have to be executed using a unique command line
parameter (the program file to be debugged or traced). The following
primitives can be used interactively in E2dbg, Etrace, and ELFsh, but
also on command line when preceded by a - (ELFsh only) at the UNIX
shell command prompt.
General purpose commands
cat edit exec exit help info list load lscripts nocolor profile
quit sdir setcolor switch unload workspace
cat print the file argument
edit Edit the file given in parameter
exec Fork and execute parameter command (with args)
help Print the help screen
info Print the extra details help screen
list List the loaded files and their ID
Load input file filename
List macro commands
Toggle color status
profile (enable | disable) (traces | warns | alloc | debug | all)
Change the ELFsh profiling behavior. Traces profiling print all
the internal function calls done by the framework. Warning
profiling prints all the (fatal and non-fatal) warnings reported
by the internal API : it very useful for tracking bugs and it
should be used when reporting issues on the bugtracking system.
Allocation and debug profiling are experimental and should only
be used by experienced ERESI developers.
quit Quit the shell without saving
sdir Change the script directory. This allows to make precise the
location of complete ERESI library and bind script files on
command names in the shell.
setcolor Associates data types to colors
setcolor type [bg,fg] color
setcolor type [underline,bold] (1=on,0=off)
Available types : address, number, string, endstring,
warnstring typestring, fieldstring, instr, pspecial, psname
pspecial, pversion, prelease, pedition
Available colors : black red green yellow blue magenta cyan
switch (filename | fileID)
Change the current file to work on to filename or fileID
unload (filename | fileID)
Unload file filename or fileID without saving
When executed without parameter, this command list existing
workspaces. When given an existing workspace name, this command
switch to that workspace. If given a non-existing workspace
name, this command creates a new workspace and switch to it.
If given without parameter, list all the existing hash tables in
the ERESI framework. If given with a parameter, print the
content of hash tables whoose name match the regular expression.
vectors [vname[:idx1:...:idxN]] [symbol|addr]
If given without parameter, list all the existing vectors in the
ERESI framework. If given with a parameter, print the content of
this vector. If given one long parameter, print the content of a
given vector entry. If given 2 parameters, modify the vector
entry with a user provided address or resolved symbol address.
Ondisk/Memory ELF commands
Those commands works in all components of the ERESI framework
(ELFsh, E2dbg, and Etrace).
add cmp ctors disasm div dtors dyn dynsym elf findrel get got
hexa interp mod mul notes pht print redir rel reladd set sht sub
add Add the 2 parameters and put the result in variable $_
cmp Compare 2 parameters. The difference is put in variable $_
ct ctors [Regex]
Print .ctors section entries matching Regex
D disasm [Regex]
Disassemble matching binary objects in current file
Allowed parameter format : regx regx:rva regx:rva%size regx%size
- regx : Regular expression (mandatory)
- rva : Byte offset from the beginning (optional)
- size : Bytes number limit (optional)
div Divide first param by second one and put the result in the first
dt dtors [Regex]
Print .dtors section entries matching Regex
dyn Print the ELF dynamic section
ds dynsym [Regex]
Print dynamic symtab (.dynsym) entries matching Regex
e elf Print the ELF header
Try to find back stripped relocation information. Note:
retreiving this information in a very exact manner is very
difficult, this command only gives you an approximative list of
pointer accesses in the binary code. It does not deal either
with constructed addresses using multiple arithmetic and logic
instructions, or with false positives that appear to be valid
mapped pointers but are not in reality (ex: Hashed data)
get Print parameter object value. The parameter can be a constant or
defined value, a variable or any ELF object that is part of any
file loaded in the shell, provided you give its id at the
beginning of the object path. See info command for the exact
grammar of object paths.
g got [Regex]
Print the entries of the Global Offset Table (GOT) matching
Regex. The regex can apply on either an address, an entry index,
or a resolved symbol from the entry address (or contained
X hexa [Regex]
Dump matching binary objects in current file. This has the same
syntax than D/disasm command.
ParamFormat : regx regx:rva regx:rva%size regx%size
- regx : Regular expression (mandatory)
- rva : Byte offset from the beginning (optional)
- size : Bytes number limit (optional)
interp Print ELF interpreter path standing in .interp section.
mod Modulo operation between 2 parameters. The result is put in the
mul Multiply the 2 parameters. The result is put in the destination
n notes [Regex]
Print the Notes sections entries matching Regex
p pht Print the Program Header Table (PHT)
print [ObjectPath1 ObjectPath2 ... ObjectPathN]
Print the values of objects ObjectPath1 ObjectPath2 ...
ObjectPathN. Objects can be constant strings, ELF objects,
variables, defined values, and so on.
redir func (func2 | addr)
Redirect calls to function func to func2 or address addr. If the
original function has a PLT entry, the ALTPLT technique is used
to perform the redirection. If the function is internal (or if
we are in a static binary) the CFLOW technique is used to
perform the redirection. ALTPLT technique is available on INTEL,
SPARC, MIPS, and ALPHA architectures. CFLOW technique is
currently not available on the SPARC architecture. The hook
(second) function is usually an injected C code provided by the
user and injected using the reladd primitive. In case the
provided hook function calls other function which are not in the
host binary, ERESI will use the EXTPLT technique (or EXTSTATIC
technique on static binaries) to relink the host binary in order
to add new relocation entries, dynamic symbols with their names,
symbol versions, extra GOT and PLT entries (using additionally
the ALTGOT technique on RISC architectures), and will fixup the
.dynamic section to reflect those changes on the section list.
r rel [Regex]
Print the relocation entries matching Regex
reladd (DestFilePath | DestfileID) (RelocFilePath | RelocFileID)
Inject the ELF relocatable object RelocFileID into the ELF
executable object DestFileID. This command is used for injecting
plain C compiled code linked into a .o file into a host ET_EXEC
(executable) or ET_DYN (shared library) ELF file.
set DestObjectPath SourceObjectPath
Set the value of object DestObjectPath to SourceObjectPath. The
$_ variable gets modified depending on the result. See the info
command for a list of all accessible objects using the set
s sht [Regex]
Print the sections in the Section Header Table (SHT) matching
sub Substract 2nd parameter to the first one. The $_ variable is
modified depending on the result.
write DestObjectPath SourceObjectPath
Copy data from SourceObjectPath to DestObjectPath. The
destination object has to be of type RAW (the data field of a
section) and the source object has to be of type RAW or STRING.
See the info command for more detail about this.
backtrace break continue dbgstack delete dumpregs linkmap stack
step display threads itrace
Print backtrace (needs frame pointer).
break (BPsymbol | 0xaddress)
Put a breakpoint on symbol or address. Print all breakpoints if
given without parameter.
step Enable or disable stepping of debuggee program. Use continue
Continue executing debuggee program after breakpoint or
delete (BPID | BPsymbol | 0xaddress)
Delete breakpoint by symbol, address, or ID.
Dump N words (N given as first parameter) from the debugger
stack. We can do that because the debugger is embedded into the
Dump WordsNBR words on debuggee stack.
Dump registers of debuggee at breakpoint or step.
Print Linkmap list for the debuggee process.
display BPid Full_ERESI_command
Set a command to be executed on event. The first parameter must
be the breakpoint id that correspond to the event. The ERESI
command can be any valid ERESI command, including the sourcing
of an ERESI script.
If called without parameter, this command list existing threads
in the debuggee process. If called with a thread ID parameter,
the current thread is switched to the thread indicated by the
itrace Singlestep the debuggee program until next breakpoint event,
printing all executed instructions until it stops.
ELFsh modules commands
modhelp modload modunload
Print help for a loaded ERESI module.
Load an ERESI module. The path has to be absolute or relative to
the registered module path.
Unload an ERESI module. The path has to be absolute or relative
to the registered module path.
ELF objects flags
fixup shtrm sstrip
fixup Mark BSS section to be included in disk file. The BSS gets
immediately fixed in the ELFsh internal descriptor of the
shtrm Mark Section Header Table as removed. The SHT will be removed
only when the file is saved.
sstrip Mark the Section Header Table (SHT) and Symbol Table (.symtab)
as stripped. They will be removed only when the file is saved.
Ondisk only ELF commands
Those commands only works in ELFsh, or in E2dbg when switched to
the static mode using the mode command.
append extend flush insert remove save stab sym
append SectionName SourceObjectPath
Append the data of object SourceObjectPath to section
extend SectionName length
Extend section SectionName with length zero bytes
flush Flush all injected .o files from current file.
insert Inject new object (section, symbol, or program header) in
current working file.
insert sect name code|data|unmap [sz] [align]
sym name value [sz]
phdr type vaddr [sz]
remove Remove ELF object (section, symbol, or program header) from
current working file
remove sect name
Dump current selected file to output file filename. This command
writes a file on disk.
debug Print unified debug format information for the current file.
st sym [Regex]
Print the symtab (.symtab) entries matching Regex.
Kernsh modules commands
Those commands only works in Kernsh.
Open kernel memory and static kernel
Close kernel memory and static kernel
sct Display the syscall table
idt Display the interrupt descriptor table
gdt Display the global descriptor table
alloc Alloc contiguous kernel memory
free Free contiguous kernel memory
Alloc non contiguous kernel memory
Free non contiguous kernel memory
Handle kernel module
kmodule -l module : load a lkm
kmodule -u module : unload a lkm
kmodule -r module1 module2 moduleout : link module with another
kmodule -i module original_name evil_name : change lkm init
(original_name) with another function (evil_name)
ksym Get an address of a kernel symbol
kmd5 sa output | sa:rva output | sa%rva%size output | sa%size output
Make a md5sum.
sa : Symbol or addr
rva : Byte offset form the beginning (optional)
size : Bytes number limit (optional) (if size is 0 or not put,
we search the end of the function)
output : file output (optional)
kcmd5 format | file
Check a md5.
format : addr:mode:size:off:md5
file : filename
Type related primitives
Those primitives allow to define and habitate types in the ERESI
Print list of types (only those matching the regular expression
if given in parameter).
type name = field1:type1 ... fieldN:typeN
Define a new type in the ERESI meta-language. Predefined types
include byte, short, int, caddr, daddr, long, hash, vector,
string, and raw.
typedef tname tname2
Copy and rename a type. Any modification on one of the types
will not affect the other.
inform type [name | address]
Make type name habitated by the variable standing at address
name. If called with a single type name parameter, the command
list all variables that habitate this type. If given 2
parameters, the name is interpreted as a symbol pointing on a
variable. Its address is resolved and the type is informed about
this variable. If only an address is given, its symbol is looked
up and the variable corresponding to the symbol is informed. If
no symbol corresponds to this address, a new one is created that
points on the address, and the newly symbolic variable is
uninform type [name]
Uninform a given variable from a type. If no variable name is
given, all variables previously informed are removed from the
connect disconnect net netkill netlist peerslist rcmd
Add a DUMP connection to given host
Kill the DUMP connection from IP
net Activate networking capabilities
Kill a network client by IP
List connected network clients
List connected DUMP peers
rcmd Execute a command on a remote machine
alert all quiet sort verb
alert Alert prefix : change alert regular expression
a all regex
Set a global regular expression. All commands which take a
regular expression as a parameter will default to use this
global regular expression.
quiet Toggle quiet flag (do not print executed commands)
sort Sorting prefix (use a -addr- or s -size-)
verb Toggle verbose flag (undo the quiet flag)
Available Script jumps
A certain number of jumps construct are available:
je jg jge jl jle jmp jne
je Jump on label if equal (use last cmp result)
jg Jump on label if greater (use last cmp result)
jge Jump on label if greater or equal (use last cmp result)
jl Jump on label if lower (use last cmp result)
jle Jump on label if lower or equal (use last cmp result)
jmp Unconditional jump to script label
jne Jump on label if nont equal (use last cmp result)
You might also consider using a foreach construct, which is not
described in this manual page.
modflow modremap modtest
Modflow is an ELFsh module designed to perform control flow
analysis on ELF binaries for detailed examples and usage see
README in ELFsh/modules/modflow
Modflow is an ELFsh module designed to perform remapping
sections in Elf binaries see ELFsh/modules/modremap for further
Modtest is a ElFsh module designed to show the usage of adding
new commands to ELFsh see ELFsh/modules/modtest for further
OBJECT PATH FORMAT
This section explains how to access different objects in an ELF file.
For most commands the object can also be a decimal or hexadecimal
numbers. In this case the ObjectPath is the number.
ELF header fields are :
magic Magic number
class File class
type Object file type
Object file version
entry Entry point virtual address
phoff Program header table file offset
shoff Section header table file offset
flags Processor-specific Flags
ehsize Size of the ELF header in bytes
Size of the program headers
Size of the section headers
phnum Number of program headers
shnum Number of section headers
Section header string table index
PAX use paging based non-executable pages
PAX emulate trampolines
PAX restrict mmap
PAX randomize mmap
PAX randomly map executable address
PAX use segmentation based non-executable pages
(filename | fileID).(got|ctors|dtors)[index]
In this command, the index can also be a symbol name that
corresponds to the requested GOT, CTORS, OR DTORS entry.
Program segment header table
(filename | fileID).pht[index].fi eld
Program segment header table entry fields are :
type Segment type
offset Segment file offset
paddr Segment physical address
vaddr Segment virtual address
filesz Segment size in file
memsz Segment size in memory
flags Segment flags
align Segment alignment
Symbol/Dynamic symbol tables
(filename | fileID).(symtab|dynsym)[index].fi eld
Symbol/Dynamic symbol table entry fields are :
name Symbol name
value Symbol value
size Symbol size
bind Symbol binding
type Symbol type
other Symbol visibility
(filename | fileID).dynamic[index].fi eld
The .dynamic section entry fields are :
val Integer or address value
tag Dynamic entry type
Section header table
(filename | fileID).sht[index].fi eld
The index can be the name of the section. Section Header Table
entries fields are :
type Section type
offset Section Offset in ELF file
addr Section Address
size Section Size in bytes
link Link to another section
info Additional Info
align Section Alignment
Entry size if section holds table
a Section occupies memory during execution
w Section is Writeable
x Section is Executable
s Contains nul-terminated strings
m Section might be merged
l Preserve order after combining
o OS specific
(filename | fileID).rel[indextable][indexentry].fi eld
Relocation entry fields are :
type Relocation Type
sym Relocation symbol index
Additional sections information
(filename | fileID).section[sectionindex].fi eld
The section object is not a real object of the binary, but a
kind of virtual one. It holds all the information about a
section that do not stand in the sectoin header table entries.
Section fields are :
name Section name
raw Section Raw data
To access use following path format :
ERESI was created by Julien Vanegue and developed by the ERESI team
<team at eresi-project dot antispam org>
The complete list of ERESI contributors can be found on the website:
This manual page was created by Julien Vanegue, from previous work on
the ELFsh man page by Peter De Schrijver for the Debian GNU/Linux
system. Additional improvements were made by stingduk for version 0.7.
readelf(1), objdump(1), objcopy(1), gdb(1), ltrace(1), strace(1)