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       efax - send/receive faxes with Class 1, 2 or 2.0 fax modem

                        (Please read the fax man page first.)


       efax [ options ] [ -t num [ file... ] ]


       Where options are:

       -a cmd   use  the  command ATcmd when answering the phone.  The default
                is "A".

       -c caps  set  the  local  modem  capabilities.   See  the  section   on
                capabilities  below  for  the format and meaning of caps.  For
                Class 1 the default is 1,n,0,2,0,0,0,0 where n is the  highest
                speed  supported  by  the  modem.   For Class 2 the default is
                determined by the modem.

       -d dev   use the fax modem connected to device  dev.   The  default  is

       -f fnt   use font file fnt for generating the header.  The default is a
                built-in 8x16 font.  See the efix(1) -f option  for  the  font
                file format.

       -g cmd   if  a  CONNECT  (or  DATA) response indicates a data call, the
                shell /bin/sh is exec(2)'ed with cmd as its command.  cmd is a
                printf(3) format that may contain up to 6 %d escapes which are
                replaced by the baud rate following the  most  recent  CONNECT
                message. cmd typically exec's getty(8).

       -h hdr   put  string  `hdr'  at  the top of each page.  The first %d in
                `hdr' is replaced by the page number and the second,  if  any,
                is replaced by the number of pages being sent.

       -i str

       -j str

       -k str   send  the  command  ATstr  to  the modem to initialize it.  -i
                commands are sent before the modem is put into  fax  mode,  -j
                commands  after the modem is in fax mode, and -k commands just
                before efax exits.   The  only  default  is  a  hang-up  (ATH)
                command  that  is  sent  before  exiting  only  if no other -k
                options are given.  Multiple options may be used.

       -l id    set the local identification string to id.  id should  be  the
                local  telephone  number  in international format (for example
                "+1 800 555 1212").  This is passed to the remote fax machine.
                Some  fax  machines  may  not  accept  characters  other  than
                numbers, space, and '+'.

       -n       force line buffering of stdout  instead  of  block  buffering.
                This might be necessary if outputting UTF-8 to a terminal with
                translated text via NLS, since otherwise the terminal  may  be
                confronted  (when the buffer is flushed when full) with only a
                partially formed  UTF-8  character.   Don't  use  this  option
                unless you have to.

       -o opt   use  option  opt  to  accommodate  a  non-standard  fax  modem
                protocol.  See the MODEM REQUIREMENTS section below  for  more
                details.  The options are:

           0    Force  use  of  Class  2.0 fax modem commands.  The modem must
                support Class 2.0.

           2    Force use of Class 2  fax  modem  commands.   The  modem  must
                support Class 2.

           1    Force  use  of  Class  1  fax  modem  commands. The modem must
                support Class 1.  By default efax queries the modem  and  uses
                the first of the three above classes which is supported by the

           a    use software adaptive answer method.  If the first attempt  to
                answer  the call does not result in a data connection within 8
                seconds the phone is hung up temporarily and answered again in
                fax mode (see "Accepting both fax and data calls" below).

           e    ignore errors in modem initialization commands.

           f    use "virtual flow control".  efax tries to estimate the number
                of  bytes  in  the  modem's  transmit  buffer  and  pauses  as
                necessary  to avoid filling it.  The modem's buffer is assumed
                to hold at  least  96  bytes.   This  feature  does  not  work
                properly  with  Class  2  modems that add redundant padding to
                scan lines.   Use  this  option  only  if  you  have  problems
                configuring flow control.

           h    use hardware (RTS/CTS) in addition to software (XON/XOFF) flow
                control.  Many modems will stop responding if this  option  is
                used.   See the section `Resolving Problems' before using this

           l    halve the time between testing lock  files  when  waiting  for
                other programs to complete.  By default this is 8 seconds. For
                example -olll sets the interval to 1 second.

           n    ignore requests for pages to be retransmitted. Use this option
                if  you don't care about the quality of the received fax or if
                the receiving machine is too fussy.  Otherwise each  page  may
                be retransmitted up to 3 times.

           r    do  not  reverse  bit  order during data reception for Class 2
                modems.   Only  Multitech  modems  require  this  option.  Not
                normally required since efax detects these modems.

           x    send  XON  (DC1)  instead  of  DC2  to  start  data reception.
                Applies to a very few Class 2 modems only.

           z    delay  an  additional  100  milliseconds  before  each   modem
                initialization or reset command.  The initial delay is 100 ms.
                For example, -ozzz produces a 400 ms delay.  Use  with  modems
                that get confused when commands arrive too quickly.

       -q n     ask  for  retransmission  of  pages  received with more than n
                errors.  Default is 10.

       -r pat   each received fax page is stored in a separate file.  The file
                name  is  created using pat as a strftime(3) format string.  A
                page number of the form .001, .002, ...  is  appended  to  the
                file  name.   If  pat is blank ("") or no -r option is given a
                default string of "%m%d%H%M%S" is used.

       -s       remove lock file(s) after initializing the modem.  This allows
                outgoing calls to proceed when efax is waiting for an incoming
                call.  If efax detects modem activity it will attempt  to  re-
                lock  the  device.   If the modem has been locked by the other
                program efax will exit and return 1  (``busy'').   Normally  a
                new  efax  process  is  then  started by init(8). The new efax
                process will then  check  periodically  until  the  lock  file
                disappears and then re-initialize the modem.

       -t num [file...]
                dial  telephone  number  num  and  send  the  fax  image files
                file....  If used, this must  be  the  last  argument  on  the
                command  line.   The telephone number num is a string that may
                contain any dial modifiers that the modem supports such as a T
                prefix  for  tone  dialing  or  commas for delays.  If no file
                names are given the remote fax machine will be polled.  If  no
                -t argument is given efax will answer the phone and attempt to
                receive a fax.

       -u       use UTF-8 and not locale codeset (if different)  for  messages
                to stderr and stdout (see also the -n option) - this is useful
                if efax is used with a front-end which expects UTF-8  encoding
                of internationalized strings.

       -v strng select  types  of  messages  to  be  printed.  Each lower-case
                letter in strng enables one type of message:

                   e - errors
                   w - warnings
                   i - session progress information
                   n - capability negotiation information
                   c - modem (AT) commands and responses
                   h - HDLC frame data (Class 1 only)
                   m - modem output
                   a - program arguments
                   r - reception error details
                   t - transmission details
                   f - image file details
                   x - lock file processing

                Up to two -v options may be used.  The first is  for  messages
                printed  to  the standard error and the second is for messages
                to the standard output. The default is "ewin" to the  standard
                error only.

       -w       wait  for an OK or CONNECT prompt instead of issuing an answer
                (ATA) command to receive a fax.   Use  this  option  when  the
                modem is set to auto-answer (using S0=n) or if another program
                has already answered the call.

       -x lkf   use a UUCP-style lock file lkf to lock the modem device before
                opening  it.   If  the  device is locked, efax checks every 15
                seconds until it is free.  Up to 16 -x options may be used  if
                there  are several names for the same device.  A `#' prefix on
                the file name creates an binary rather than  text  (HDB-style)
                lock  file.   This is the reverse of what was used by previous
                efax versions.


       efax can read the same types of files as efix(1)  including  text,  T.4
       (Group  3),  PBM,  single-  and  multi-page TIFF (G3 and uncompressed).
       efax automatically determines the type of file from its contents.  TIFF
       files  are recommended as they contain information about the image size
       and resolution.

       Each page to be sent should be converted to a separate TIFF format file
       with  Group 3 (G3) compression.  Received files are also stored in this
       format.  The EXAMPLES section below shows how efix and  other  programs
       can be used to create, view and print these files.


       The  operating  system  must  provide  short  response  times  to avoid
       protocol timeouts.  For Class 2 and 2.0 modems  the  delay  should  not
       exceed 1 or 2 seconds.

       When  using  Class  1 modems the program must respond to certain events
       within 55 milliseconds.  Longer delays may cause the  fax  protocol  to
       fail  in  certain  places (between DCS and TCF or between RTC and MPS).
       Class 1 modems should therefore not be  used  on  systems  that  cannot
       guarantee  that  the program will respond to incoming data in less than
       55 milliseconds.  In particular,  some  intelligent  serial  cards  and
       terminal  servers  may  introduce  enough  delay to cause problems with
       Class 1 operation.

       The operating system must also provide sufficient  low-level  buffering
       to  allow  uninterrupted  transfer of data between the modem and a disk
       file at the selected baud rate, typically  9600  bps.   Since  the  fax
       protocol  does not provide end-to-end flow control the effectiveness of
       flow control while receiving is limited by  the  size  of  the  modem's
       buffer.  This  can  be  less  than  100  bytes.  Efax does not use flow
       control during reception.


       The "Group" is the protocol used to send faxes  between  fax  machines.
       Efax  supports  the  Group  3  protocol  used over the public telephone

       The "Class" is the protocol used by computers to  control  fax  modems.
       Efax supports Class 1, 2 and 2.0 fax modems.

       Most  fax modems use XON/XOFF flow control when in fax mode.  This type
       of flow control adds very little overhead for fax use. Many modems have
       unreliable  hardware  (RTS/CTS)  flow  control in fax mode.  By default
       efax enables only XON/XOFF flow control and the -oh option must be used
       to add hardware flow control.

       While  some  modems  have  serial  buffers  of  about  1k  bytes,  many
       inexpensive modems have buffers of about one hundred bytes and are thus
       more likely to suffer overruns when sending faxes.

       A  few  older modems may need a delay between commands of more than the
       default value used by efax (100 milliseconds).  If  the  delay  is  too
       short,  commands  may  not  echo  properly,  may  time out, or may give
       inconsistent responses.  Use one or more -oz options  to  increase  the
       delay  between  modem  initialization  commands  and  use  the E0 modem
       initialization command to disable echoing of modem commands.

       By default efax sends DC2 to start the data flow from  the  modem  when
       receiving  faxes  from  Class 2 modems.  A few older modems require XON
       instead.  Use of DC2 would cause the modem to  give  an  error  message
       and/or  the program to time out.  The -ox option should be used in this

       A few older Class 2 modems (e.g. some Intel models) don't send  DC2  or
       XON  to  start  the  data  flow to the modem when sending faxes.  After
       waiting 2 seconds efax will print a warning and start sending  anyways.

       A  very few Class 2 modems do not reverse the bit order (MSB to LSB) by
       default on receive.  This might cause errors when trying to display  or
       print the received files.  The -or option can be used in this case.

       Some  inexpensive  "9600  bps" fax modems only transmit at 9600 bps and
       reception is limited to 4800 bps.

       The following Class 1 modems have been reported to work with efax: AT&T
       DataPort,  Cardinal Digital Fax Modem (14400), Digicom Scout+, Motorola
       Lifestyle 28.8, Motorola Power 28.8,  QuickComm  Spirit  II,  Smartlink
       9614AV-Modem,  Supra  Faxmodem  144LC,  USR  Courier V.32bis Terbo, USR
       Sportster (V.32 and V.34), Zoom AFC 2.400, Zoom VFX14.4V.

       The following Class 2 modems have been reported to work with efax: 14k4
       Amigo  Communion  fax/modem, Adtech Micro Systems 14.4 Fax/modem, askey
       modem type 1414VQE, AT&T DataPort, ATT/Paradyne, AT&T Paradyne  PCMCIA,
       Boca  modem, BOCA M1440E, Crosslink 9614FH faxmodem, FuryCard DNE 5005,
       GVC 14.4k internal, Intel 14.4 fax modem, Megahertz  14.4,  ,  Microcom
       DeskPorte  FAST  ES  28.8,  Motorola  UDS FasTalk II, MultiTech 1432MU,
       Practical Peripherals PM14400FXMT, Supra V32bis,  Telebit  Worldblazer,
       TKR  DM-24VF+,  Twincom  144/DFi,  ViVa 14.4/Fax modem, Vobis Fax-Modem
       (BZT-approved), Zoom VFX14.4V, ZyXEL U-1496E[+], ZyXEL Elite 2864I.


       The required modem  initialization  commands  are  generated  by  efax.
       Additional  commands  may  be  supplied as command-line arguments.  The
       modem must  be  set  up  to  issue  verbose(text)  result  codes.   The
       following  command  does  this  and  is  sent  by efax before trying to
       initialize the modem.

       Q0V1     respond to commands with verbose result codes

       The following commands may be useful for special purposes:

       X3       don't wait for dial tone before dialing.  This may be used  to
                send a fax when the call has already been dialed manually.  In
                this case use an empty string ("") as the  first  argument  to
                the  -t  command.  Use X4 (usual default) to enable all result

       M2       leave the monitor speaker turned on for the  duration  of  the
                call (use M0 to leave it off).

       L0       turn monitor speaker volume to minimum (use L3 for maximum).

       E0       disable echoing of modem commands.  See the Resolving Problems
                section below.

       &D2      returns the modem to command mode when DTR  is  dropped.   The
                program drops DTR at the start and end of the call if it can't
                get a response to a modem command.  You can use &D3  to  reset
                the modem when DTR is dropped.

       S7=120   wait up to two minutes (120 seconds) for carrier.  This may be
                useful if the answering fax machine takes a long time to start
                the  handshaking  operation  (e.g.  a  combined  fax/answering
                machine with a long announcement).


       The capabilities of the local hardware and software can be set using  a
       string of 8 digits separated by commas:



       vr  (vertical resolution) =
                0 for 98 lines per inch
                1 for 196 lpi

       br  (bit rate) =
                0 for 2400 bps
                1 for 4800
                2 for 7200
                3 for 9600
                4 for 12000 (V.17)
                5 for 14400 (V.17)

       wd  (width) =
                0 for 8.5" (21.5 cm) page width
                1 for 10" (25.5 cm)
                2 for 12" (30.3 cm)

       ln  (length) =
                0 for 11" (A4: 29.7 cm) page length
                1 for 14" (B4: 36.4 cm)
                2 for unlimited page length

       df  (data format) =
                0 for 1-D coding
                1 for 2-D coding (not supported)

       ec  (error correction) =
                0 for no error correction

       bf  (binary file) =
                0 for no binary file transfer

       st  (minimum scan time) =
                0 for zero delay per line
                1 for 5 ms per line
                3 for 10 ms per line
                5 for 20 ms per line
                7 for 40 ms per line

       When receiving a fax the vr, wd, and ln fields of the capability string
       should be  set  to  the  maximum  values  that  your  display  software
       supports.   The  default  is  196 lpi, standard (8.5"/21.5cm) width and
       unlimited length.

       When sending a fax efax will determine vr and ln from  the  image  file
       and set wd to the default.

       If  the  receiving  fax machine does not support high resolution (vr=1)
       mode, efax will reduce the resolution by combining pairs of scan lines.
       If  the  receiving  fax machine does not support the image's width then
       efax will truncate or pad as required. Most fax machines can receive ln
       up to 2.  Few machines support values of wd other than 0.


       efax  adds  blank  scan lines at the top of each image when it is sent.
       This allows room for the page header but increases the  length  of  the
       image (by default about 0.1" or 2.5mm of blank space is added).

       The  header  placed  in this area typically includes the date and time,
       identifies the, and shows the page number  and  total  pages.   Headers
       cannot be disabled but the header string can be set to a blank line.

       The  default font for generating the headers is the built-in 8x16 pixel
       font scaled to 12x24 pixels (about 9 point size).

       Note that both efax and efix have -f options to specify the font.  efIx
       uses  the  font  to  generate  text  when doing text-to-fax conversions
       (during "fax make") while efAx uses the font  to  generate  the  header
       (during "fax send").


       A  session log is written to the standard error stream.  This log gives
       status and error messages from  the  program  as  selected  by  the  -v
       option.  A time stamp showing the full time or just minutes and seconds
       is printed  before  each  message.   Times  printed  along  with  modem
       responses also show milliseconds.


       The program returns an error code as follows:

       0        The fax was successfully sent or received.

       1        The  dialed  number  was  busy or the modem device was in use.
                Try again later.

       2        Something failed (e.g. file not found  or  disk  full).  Don't
                retry.  Check the session log for more details.

       3        Modem  protocol  error.   The  program  did  not  receive  the
                expected response from the modem.  The modem may not have been
                properly initialized, the correct -o options were not used, or
                a bug report may be in order.  Check the session log for  more

       4        The  modem is not responding.  Operator attention is required.
                Check that the modem is turned on and connected to the correct

       5        The program was terminated by a signal.


       Creating fax (G3) files

       The  efix  program can be used to convert text files to TIFF-G3 format.
       For example, the following command will convert the text file letter to
       the files letter.001, letter.002, etc,:

              efix -nletter.%03d letter

       Ghostscript's  tiffg3  driver  can generate fax files in TIFF-G3 format
       from postscript files.  For example, the command:

               gs -q -sDEVICE=tiffg3 -dNOPAUSE \
                   -sOutputFile=letter.%03d </dev/null

       will convert the Postscript file into high-resolution  (vr=1)
       G3 fax image files letter.001, letter.002, ...

       The  images  should  have margins of at least 1/2 inch (1 cm) since the
       fax standard only requires that fax machines print a central portion of
       the image 196.6mm (7.7 inches) wide by 281.5mm (11.1 inches) high.

       The   efix  program  can  also  insert  bitmaps  in  images  to  create
       letterhead, signatures, etc.

       Printing fax files

       You can use the efix program to print faxes  on  Postscript  or  HP-PCL
       (LaserJet)  printers.   For  example,  to  print  the received fax file
       reply.001 on a Postscript printer use the command:

              efix -ops reply.001 | lpr

       Sending fax files

       The following command will dial the number 222-2222 using tone  dialing
       and  send  a  two-page  fax  from  the  TIFF-G3  files  letter.001  and
       letter.002 using the fax modem connected to device /dev/cua1.

              efax -d /dev/cua1 \
                   -t T222-2222 letter.001 letter.002

       Manual answer

       You can use  efax  to  answer  the  phone  immediately  and  start  fax
       reception.   Use  this mode if you need to answer calls manually to see
       if they are fax or voice.

       For example, the following command will make the fax  modem  on  device
       /dev/ttyS1 answer the phone and attempt to receive a fax.  The received
       fax will be stored in the files reply.001, reply.002, and so  on.   The
       modem  will  identify itself as "555 1212" and receive faxes at high or
       low resolution (vr=1), at up to 14.4 kbps (br=5).

              efax -d /dev/ttyS1 -l "555 1212" \
                 -c 1,5 -r reply

       Automatic answer

       The -w option makes efax wait for characters to become  available  from
       the  modem (indicating an incoming call) before starting fax reception.
       Use the -w option and a -iS0=n option  to  answer  the  phone  after  n
       rings.   The example below will make the modem answer incoming calls in
       fax mode on the fourth ring and save the  received  faxes  using  files
       names corresponding to the reception date and time.

              efax -d /dev/ttyb -w -iS0=4 2>&1 >> fax.log

       Sharing the modem with outgoing calls

       The  modem  device  can  be shared by programs that use the UUCP device
       locking protocol.  This includes pppd, chat, minicom,  kermit,  uucico,
       efax,  cu,  and many others others.  However, locking will only work if
       all programs use the same lock file.

       efax will lock the modem device before opening it if one or  more  UUCP
       lock  file  names are given with -x options.  Most programs place their
       lock files in the /usr/spool/uucp or /var/lock directories and use  the
       name  where  dev  is  the name of the device file in the /dev
       directory that is to be locked.

       If the -s (share) option is  used,  the  lock  file  is  removed  while
       waiting for incoming calls so other programs can use the same device.

       If  efax detects another program using the modem while it is waiting to
       receive a fax, efax exits with a termination code of 1.   A  subsequent
       efax  process  using  this  device will wait until the other program is
       finished before re-initializing the modem  and  starting  to  wait  for
       incoming calls again.

       Programs  that  try  to  lock  the modem device by using device locking
       facilities other  than  UUCP  lock  files  not  be  able  to  use  this
       arbitration mechanism because the device will still be open to the efax
       process.  In this case you will need to kill  the  efax  process  (e.g.
       "fax stop") before starting the other program.

       When  efax is waiting for a fax it leaves the modem ready to receive in
       fax mode but removes the lock file.  When a slip or PPP  program  takes
       over  the  modem  port by setting up its own lock file efax cannot send
       any more commands to the modem -- not even to reset it.  Therefore  the
       other program has to set the modem back to data mode when it starts up.
       To do this add a modem reset  command  (send  ATZ  expect  OK)  to  the
       beginning of your slip or PPP chat script.

       Accepting both fax and data calls

       Many  modems  have an adaptive data/fax answer mode that can be enabled
       using  the  -j+FAE=1  (for  Class  1)  or  -jFAA=1  (for  Class  2[.0])
       initialization  string.   The  type  of  call (data or fax) can then be
       deduced from the modem's responses.

       Some modems have limited adaptive answer features  (e.g.  only  working
       properly  at certain baud rates or only in Class 2) or none at all.  In
       this case use the initialization string -i+FCLASS=0 to answer  in  data
       mode first and the -oa option to then hang up and try again in fax mode
       if the first answer attempt was not successful.  This method only works
       if  your  telephone system waits a few seconds after you hang up before
       disconnecting incoming calls.

       If the -g option is used then the option's argument will be  run  as  a
       shell  command  when an incoming data call is detected.  Typically this
       command will exec getty(8).  This program should  expect  to  find  the
       modem  already off-hook and a lock file present so it should not try to
       hang up the line or create a lock file.  Note that the modem should  be
       set  up  to  report  the  DCE-DTE  (modem-computer, e.g. CONNECT 38400)
       speed, not the DCE-DCE (modem-modem, e.g. CONNECT  14400)  speed.   For
       many modems the initialization option -iW0 will set this.

       The following command will make efax answer incoming calls on /dev/cua1
       on the second ring.  This device will be  locked  using  two  different
       lock  files  but  these  lock  files  will be removed while waiting for
       incoming calls (-s).  If a data call is  detected,  the  getty  program
       will  be  run  to  initialize  the terminal driver and start a login(1)
       process.   Received  fax  files  will  be  stored  using   names   like
       Dec02-,  in  the  /usr/spool/fax/incoming directory and the
       log file will be appended to /usr/spool/fax/faxlog.cua1.

              efax -d /dev/cua1  -j '+FAA=1' \
                 -x /usr/spool/uucp/LCK..cua1 \
                 -x /usr/spool/uucp/LCK..ttyS1 \
                 -g "exec /sbin/getty -h /dev/cua1 %d" \
                 -iS0=2 -w -s \
                 -r "/usr/spool/fax/incoming/%b%d-%H.%I.%S" \
                 >> /usr/spool/fax/faxlog.cua1 2>&1

       Note that adaptive answer of either type will not work for all callers.
       For some data calls the duration of the initial data-mode answer may be
       too short for data  handshaking  to  complete.   In  other  cases  this
       duration  may  be  so long that incoming fax calls will time out before
       efax switches to fax  mode.   In  addition,  some  calling  fax  modems
       mistake  data-mode answering tones for fax signaling tones and initiate
       fax negotiation too soon.  If you use software adaptive answer you  can
       reduce  the  value  of the initial data-mode answer (set by TO_DATAF in
       efax.c) to get more reliable fax handshaking or increase  it  for  more
       reliable  data  handshaking.   However, if you need to provide reliable
       fax and data service to all  callers  you  should  use  separate  phone
       numbers for the two types of calls.

       When  a  call  is answered the modem goes on-line with the computer-to-
       modem baud rate fixed at the speed used for the most recent AT command.
       When efax is waiting for a fax or data call it sets the interface speed
       to 19200 bps since this is the speed required for fax operation.   This
       prevents full use of 28.8kbps modem capabilities.


       efax  can  answer  all incoming calls if you place an entry for efax in
       /etc/inittab (for  SysV-like  systems)  or  /etc/ttytab  (for  BSD-like
       systems).  The  init(8)  process  will  run a new copy of efax when the
       system boots up and whenever the previous efax process terminates.  The
       inittab  or  ttytab  entry should invoke efax by running the fax script
       with an answer argument.

       For example, placing the following line in  /etc/inittab  (and  running
       "kill -1 1") will make init run the fax script with the argument answer
       every time previous process terminates and init is in runlevel 4 or  5.

              s1:45:respawn:/bin/sh /usr/bin/fax answer

       For  BSD-like  systems  (e.g.  SunOS),  a line such as the following in
       /etc/ttytab will have the same effect:

              ttya "/usr/local/bin/fax answer" unknown on

       You should protect the  fax  script  and  configuration  files  against
       tampering  since init will execute them as a privileged (root) process.
       If you will be allowing data calls  via  getty  and  login  you  should
       ensure  that  your system is reasonably secure (e.g. that all user id's
       have secure passwords).

       If efax exec()'s getty properly but you get a garbled login prompt then
       there  is  probably  a  baud  rate  mismatch  between the modem and the
       computer.  First, check the efax log file  to  make  sure  the  modem's
       CONNECT  response  reported the serial port speed (e.g. 19200), not the
       modem-modem speed (e.g. 14400).  Next, check the getty  options  and/or
       configuration  files  (e.g.  /etc/gettydefs)  for  that particular baud
       rate.  Then run getty manually with the same arguments and  verify  the
       port settings using ``stty </dev/XXX''.  Note that you'll probably want
       to enable hardware flow control for data connections  (-h  for  agetty,
       CRTSCTS for getty_ps).

       A  few programs won't work properly when efax is set up to answer calls
       because they don't create lock files.  You can  put  the  shell  script
       ``wrapper''  below  around  such  programs  to make them work properly.
       Change BIN and LOCKF to suit.

              if [ -f $LOCKF ]
                      echo lock file $LOCKF exists
                      exit 1
                      printf "%10d0 $$ >$LOCKF
                      $BIN $*
                      rm $LOCKF


       The "fax answer" script described above can be configured to e-mail the
       fax  files  received  by  the  previous  fax  answer  process to a "fax
       manager" who can then forward the fax to the  correct  recipient.   The
       received  fax  files  are  send as MIME attachments, one file per page,
       using the ``base64'' text encoding and the ``image/tiff'' file  format.

       To  view  the fax images directly from your e-mail reader you will have
       to configure it with an application that  can  display  files  of  type
       image/tiff.   Typically  this  is specified in a ``mailcap'' file.  For
       example, placing the following line in /etc/mailcap will cause the  fax
       file attachments to be displayed using the ``fax view'' command.

       image/tiff; fax view %s


       You  can configure a "fax" printer into the lpr print spooler that will
       fax a document out using efax instead of printing it.   This  allows  a
       network  server running efax to send faxes on behalf of other machines,
       including non-Unix clients.  In the following steps use the directories
       specified  in  the  fax  script if they are different than /usr/bin and
       /var/spool/fax (FAXDIR).  To set up a fax printer do the  following  as

       (1) Create a link to the fax script called ``faxlpr'' so the fax script
       can determine when it is being invoked from the print spooler:

       ln -s /usr/bin/fax /usr/bin/faxlpr

       (2) Edit /etc/printcap and add an entry such as:


       to define a printer called "fax".  Print files will be spooled  to  the
       /var/spool/fax  (sd=)  directory  and then piped to the /usr/bin/faxlpr
       filter (if=).  Error messages will appear on /dev/console.

       (3) Create and/or set the permissions to allow anyone to read and write
       in the fax spool directory.  For example:

              mkdir /var/spool/fax
              chmod 777 /var/spool/fax

       (4) Create a printer daemon lock file that is readable by anyone:

              touch /var/spool/fax/lock
              chmod 644 /var/spool/fax/lock

       You should now be able to send a fax using the lpr interface by using a
       command such as:

              lpr -P fax -J "555 1212"

       where the -J option is used to specify the phone number or alias to  be

       Note  that if more than one file is given on the command line they will
       be concatenated before being passed to "fax send".  TIFF-G3, Postscript
       or  PBM  files  must therefore be sent one file at a time although TIFF
       and Postscript files may contain multiple pages.   Only  multiple  text
       files  can  be  sent  in one command.  Page breaks in text files can be
       marked with form-feed characters.  Files will be converted and sent  at
       the default (high) resolution.

       You  can  use lpq(1) to check the fax queue, lprm(1) to remove fax jobs
       and lpc(8) to control the spooler.  In each case use the  -Pfax  option
       to  specify  the fax ``printer.'' A log file will be mailed to the user
       when the fax is sent.

       You should also be able to send a fax from any networked computer  that
       has  lpr-compatible remote printing software and that allows you to set
       the job name (-J option) to an  arbitrary  string.   Such  software  is
       available for most computers.

       See  the  lpd(8) and printcap(5) man pages for information on the print
       spooler and for restricting access by host name (/etc/host.lpd)  or  by
       user group (the `rg' printcap entry).


       Double  check  the  configuration  setup  in  the first part of the fax
       script, particularly the modem device name and the lock file names.

       If  efax  hangs  when  trying  to  open  the  modem  device  (typically
       /dev/ttyX),  the  device  is  either  already in use by another process
       (e.g. pppd) or it requires the carrier detect line to be true before it
       can  be  opened.   Many systems define an alternate device name for the
       same physical device (typically  cuaX)  that  can  be  opened  even  if
       carrier is not present or other programs are already using it.

       If  responses  to  modem  initialization  commands  are  being  lost or
       generated at random, another processes (e.g. getty  or  an  efax  auto-
       answer  process)  may be trying to use the modem at the same time.  Try
       running efax while this other program is running.   If  efax  does  not
       report  "/dev/ttyX locked or busy. waiting."  then the lock files names
       are not specified correctly.

       Attempt to send a fax. Check that the modem starts making  the  calling
       signal  (CNG,  a  0.5  second  beep  every  3  seconds) as soon as it's
       finished dialing.  This shows the modem is in fax mode.  You  may  need
       to  set  the  SPKR  variable  to -iM2L3 to monitor the phone line to do

       Listen for the answering fax machine and check that it sends the answer
       signal  (CED,  a  3  second  beep)  followed  by "warbling" sounds (DIS
       frames) every 3 seconds.  If you hear  a  continuous  sound  (tones  or
       noise) instead, then you've connected to a data modem instead.

       Your  modem  should send back its own warble (DCS frame) in response to
       DIS immediately followed by 1.5 seconds of noise (a channel check).  If
       everything  is  OK,  the  receiving  end  will send another warble (CFR
       frame) and your modem will start to send data.  If you have an external
       modem, check its LEDs.  If flow control is working properly the modem's
       send data (SD) LED will turn off periodically while  the  fax  data  is

       Check  the message showing the line count and the average bit rate when
       the page transmission is done.  Low  line  counts  (under  1000  for  a
       letter  size  image)  or the warning "fax output buffer overflow" while
       sending indicate that the image data format  is  incorrect.  Check  the
       file being sent using the "fax view" command.

       If  you  get  the error message ``flow control did not work'' then flow
       control was not active.  This usually results in a garbled transmission
       and  the receiving machine may reject the page, abort the call, print a
       distorted or blank image and/or hang up.

       The warning "characters received while sending" or an <XOFF>  character
       appearing  after  the  transmission  means  that  the  operating system
       ignored the modem's XOFF flow control character.  Ensure that  you  are
       not  running  other  programs such as getty or pppd at the same time as
       efax since they will turn off xon/xoff flow control.

       If you cannot get flow control to work properly then  enable  ``virtual
       flow  control''  with  the -of option or hardware flow control with the
       -oh option.

       Check that  the  remote  machine  confirms  reception  with  a  +FPTS:1
       response (Class 2) or an MCF frame (Class 1).

       For  Class 2 modems, the error message "abnormal call termination (code
       nn)" indicates that the modem detected an error and hung up.

       Many companies advertise services that will  fax  back  information  on
       their products.  These can be useful for testing fax reception.

       The  message  "run  length buffer overflow" when receiving indicates an
       error with the image data format.  You may need to use the  -or  option
       with certain Class 2 modems.

       If  efax  displays the message "can't happen (<details>)" please send a
       bug report to the author.

       Finally, don't play "option bingo," if you can't  resolve  the  problem
       send  a  verbose log of the failed session (the output from fax -v ...)
       to the address below.


       A Web Page with pointers to the latest version, known bugs and  patches
       is available at:



       For Linux Systems

       Independent  packages  provide  more  user-friendly  interfaces to efax
       (xfax, tefax) and provide an e-mail-to-fax (Qfax) gateway  using  efax.
       All   are   available   by   anonymous   FTP  from  in

       For Amiga Systems

       A port of an early version of efax for the  Amiga  is  available  as  a
       component  of  a  shareware  voice mail package, AVM, distributed by Al
       Villarica (

       Other Ports

       efax is relatively easy to  port.   All  system-dependent  code  is  in
       efaxos.c.   An  early  version of efax was ported to VMS.  Version 0.8a
       was ported to Win32 by Luigi Capriotti.   Contact  the  author  if  you
       would like to integrate the Win32 code into the current version.


       Efax  was  written by Ed Casas.  Please send comments or bug reports to


       Bug reports should include the operating system, the type of the  modem
       and  a  copy  of  a  verbose session log that demonstrates the problem.
       It's usually impossible to help without a verbose log.  Please  do  not
       send fax image files.


       efax  is  copyright  1993 -- 1999 Ed Casas.  It may be used, copied and
       modified under the terms of the GNU Public License.


       Although efax has been tested it may have errors that will  prevent  it
       from  working correctly on your system.  Some of these errors may cause
       serious problems including loss of data and interruptions to  telephone


       CCITT   Recommendation   T.30,   "Procedures   for  Document  Facsimile
       Transmission in the General Switched Telephone Network". 1988

       CCITT  Recommendation  T.4,  "Standardization  of  Group  3   Facsimile
       Apparatus for Document Transmission". 1988.

       For documentation on Class 1 and Class 2 fax commands as implemented by
       Connexant        (formerly         Rockwell)         modems         see

       For            the           TIFF           specification           see
       or RFC 2301 (

       For information on Ghostscript see

       The  pbm  utilities  can be obtained by ftp from in

       PCX and many other file formats are described in: Gunter Born, The File
       Formats Handbook, International Thomson Computer Press, 1995.

       The "Fax Modem Source Book" by Andrew Margolis, published by John Wiley
       & Sons in 1994 (ISBN 0471950726), is a book on writing fax applications
       which includes source code.

       Dennis   Bodson   et.  al.,  "FAX:  Digital  Facsimile  Technology  and
       Applications", Second Edition. Artech House, Boston. 1992.


       fax(1), efix(1), gs(1), init(8),  inittab(5),  ttytab(5),  printcap(5),
       lpd(8), printf(3), strftime(3).


       Can't read TIFF files with more than 1 strip

       Class 1 operation may fail if the program can't respond to certain data
       received from the modem within 55 milliseconds.

       May fail if multitasking delays cause the received data to overflow the
       computer's  serial  device  buffer  or if an under-run of transmit data
       exceeds 5 seconds.

       Polling does not work.

       Does not support 2-D coding, ECM, or BFT.