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       dpkg-source - Debian source package (.dsc) manipulation tool


       dpkg-source [options] command


       dpkg-source packs and unpacks Debian source archives.

       None  of these commands allow multiple options to be combined into one,
       and they do not allow the value for an option  to  be  specified  in  a
       separate argument.


       -x filename.dsc [output-directory]
              Extract  a  source  package.  One  non-option  argument  must be
              supplied, the name of the Debian source control file (.dsc).  An
              optional  second  non-option argument may be supplied to specify
              the directory to extract the source package to,  this  must  not
              exist.  If  no output directory is specified, the source package
              is extracted into a directory  named  source-version  under  the
              current working directory.

              dpkg-source  will  read the names of the other file(s) making up
              the source package from the control file; they are assumed to be
              in the same directory as the .dsc.

              The  files  in the extracted package will have their permissions
              and ownerships set to those which would have  been  expected  if
              the  files and directories had simply been created - directories
              and executable files will be 0777 and plain files will be  0666,
              both  modified by the extractors' umask; if the parent directory
              is setgid then the extracted directories will be  too,  and  all
              the files and directories will inherit its group ownership.

              If the source package uses a non-standard format (currently this
              means all formats except "1.0"), its  name  will  be  stored  in
              debian/source/format  so that the following builds of the source
              package use the same format by default.

       -b directory [format-specific-parameters]
              Build a source package. The first non-option argument  is  taken
              as  the  name  of the directory containing the debianized source
              tree (i.e. with a debian sub-directory and maybe changes to  the
              original files).  Depending on the source package format used to
              build the package, additional parameters might be accepted.

              dpkg-source will build the source package with the first  format
              found  in  this  ordered  list:  the  format  indicated with the
              --format  command-line   option,   the   format   indicated   in
              debian/source/format, "1.0". The fallback to "1.0" is deprecated
              and will be removed at some point  in  the  future,  you  should
              always     document     the    desired    source    format    in
              debian/source/format. See section SOURCE PACKAGE FORMATS for  an
              extensive description of the various source package formats.

       --print-format directory
              Print  the  source format that would be used to build the source
              package if dpkg-source -b directory  was  called  (in  the  same
              conditions and with the same parameters).

       --before-build directory
              This  command  should  be called before any build of the package
              (dpkg-buildpackage calls it very early even before  debian/rules
              clean).  This  command  should  be  idempotent and can be called
              multiple times. Not all source formats  implement  something  in
              this hook, and those that do usually prepare the source tree for
              the build for example by ensuring that the  Debian  patches  are

       --after-build directory
              This  command  should  be  called after any build of the package
              (dpkg-buildpackage  calls  it  last).  This  command  should  be
              idempotent  and  can  be  called  multiple times. Not all source
              formats implement something in this  hook,  and  those  that  do
              usually use it to undo what --before-build has done.

       -h, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.


              Specifies the main source control file to read information from.
              The default is debian/control.  If given with relative  pathname
              this  is  interpreted  starting  at  the source tree's top level

              Specifies the change log file  to  read  information  from.  The
              default  is  debian/changelog.   If given with relative pathname
              this is interpreted starting at  the  source  tree's  top  level

              Specifies  the format of the changelog. By default the format is
              read from a special line near the bottom  of  the  changelog  or
              failing that defaults to the debian standard format.

              Use  the  given  format for building the source package. It does
              override any format given in debian/source/format.

              Set an output substitution variable.  See deb-substvars(5) for a
              discussion of output substitution.

              Read  substitution variables in substvarsfile; the default is to
              not read any file. This option can be  used  multiple  times  to
              read substitution variables from multiple files.

              Override or add an output control file field.

              Remove an output control file field.

       -Zcompression, --compression=compression
              Specify  the  compression to use for created files (tarballs and
              diffs).  Note that this option will not cause existing  tarballs
              to  be recompressed, it only affects new files. Supported values
              are: gzip, bzip2, lzma and xz.  gzip is the default. xz is  only
              supported since dpkg-dev 1.15.5.

       -zlevel, --compression-level=level
              Compression  level  to  use.  As  with  -Z it only affects newly
              created files. Supported values are: 1 to 9, best, and fast.   9
              is the default.

       -i[regexp], --diff-ignore[=regexp]
              You  may  specify  a  perl regular expression to match files you
              want filtered out of the list of files for the diff. (This  list
              is generated by a find command.) (If the source package is being
              built as a version 3 source package using a  VCS,  this  can  be
              used  to ignore uncommited changes on specific files. Using -i.*
              will ignore all of them.)  -i by itself enables the option, with
              a  default  regexp  that  will  filter  out  control  files  and
              directories of the most common revision control systems,  backup
              and  swap  files and Libtool build output directories. There can
              only be one active regexp, of multiple -i options only the  last
              one will take effect.

              This  is  very  helpful in cutting out extraneous files that get
              included in the diff, e.g. if you  maintain  your  source  in  a
              revision  control  system  and want to use a checkout to build a
              source  package  without  including  the  additional  files  and
              directories that it will usually contain (e.g. CVS/, .cvsignore,
              .svn/). The default regexp is already very  exhaustive,  but  if
              you need to replace it, please note that by default it can match
              any part of a path, so if you want  to  match  the  begin  of  a
              filename  or  only  full filenames, you will need to provide the
              necessary anchors (e.g. '(^|/)', '($|/)') yourself.

              The perl regular expression specified will  extend  the  default
              regular  expression  associated to -i by concatenating "|regexp"
              to the default regexp.  This option  is  convenient  to  use  in
              debian/source/options  to exclude some auto-generated files from
              the automatic patch generation.

       -I[file-pattern], --tar-ignore[=file-pattern]
              If this option is specified,  the  pattern  will  be  passed  to
              tar(1)'s  --exclude  option  when  it  is  called  to generate a
              .orig.tar or .tar file. For example, -ICVS will  make  tar  skip
              over  CVS directories when generating a .tar.gz file. The option
              may be repeated multiple times  to  list  multiple  patterns  to

              -I by itself adds default --exclude options that will filter out
              control files  and  directories  of  the  most  common  revision
              control  systems, backup and swap files and Libtool build output

       Note: While they have similar purposes, -i and -I have  very  different
       syntax  and  semantics.  -i can only be specified once and takes a perl
       compatible  regular  expression  which  is  matched  against  the  full
       relative path of each file. -I can specified multiple times and takes a
       filename pattern with shell wildcards.  The pattern is applied  to  the
       full  relative path but also to each part of the path individually. The
       exact semantic of tar's --exclude option is somewhat  complicated,  see  for  a  full

       The default regexp and patterns for both options can  be  seen  in  the
       output of the --help command.


              Do not copy original tarballs near the extracted source package.

              Do not check signatures and checksums before unpacking.

              Refuse to unpack the source package if  it  doesn't  contain  an
              OpenPGP  signature  that  can be verified either with the user's
              trustedkeys.gpg keyring, one of the vendor-specific keyrings, or
              one of the official Debian keyrings (/usr/share/keyrings/debian-
              keyring.gpg and /usr/share/keyrings/debian-maintainers.gpg).


       If you don't know what source format to use, you should  probably  pick
       either      "3.0      (quilt)"      or      "3.0     (native)".     See  for   information   on   the
       deployment of those formats within Debian.

   Format: 1.0
       A  source  package  in  this  format  consists either of a .orig.tar.gz
       associated to a .diff.gz or a single .tar.gz (in that case the  package
       is said to be native).


       Extracting  a  native  package  is  a  simple  extraction of the single
       tarball in the target directory. Extracting  a  non-native  package  is
       done  by  first  unpacking the .orig.tar.gz and then applying the patch
       contained in the .diff.gz file. The timestamp of all patched  files  is
       reset  to  the  extraction  time  of  the  source  package (this avoids
       timestamp skews  leading  to  problems  when  autogenerated  files  are
       patched).  The diff can create new files (the whole debian directory is
       created that way) but can't remove files  (empty  files  will  be  left


       Building  a  native  package is just creating a single tarball with the
       source directory. Building a non-native package involves extracting the
       original  tarball  in a separate ".orig" directory and regenerating the
       .diff.gz by comparing the  source  package  directory  with  the  .orig

       Build options (with -b):

       If  a  second  non-option argument is supplied it should be the name of
       the original source directory or tarfile or the  empty  string  if  the
       package  is a Debian-specific one and so has no Debianisation diffs. If
       no second argument is supplied  then  dpkg-source  will  look  for  the
       original  source  tarfile  package_upstream-version.orig.tar.gz  or the
       original  source  directory  directory.orig  depending   on   the   -sX

       -sa,  -sp,  -sk,  -su  and  -sr will not overwrite existing tarfiles or
       directories. If this is desired then -sA, -sP, -sK, -sU and -sR  should
       be used instead.

       -sk    Specifies to expect the original source as a tarfile, by default
              package_upstream-version.orig.tar.extension.  It will leave this
              original source in place as a tarfile, or copy it to the current
              directory if  it  isn't  already  there.  The  tarball  will  be
              unpacked into directory.orig for the generation of the diff.

       -sp    Like -sk but will remove the directory again afterwards.

       -su    Specifies  that  the original source is expected as a directory,
              by default package-upstream-version.orig  and  dpkg-source  will
              create a new original source archive from it.

       -sr    Like  -su but will remove that directory after it has been used.

       -ss    Specifies that the  original  source  is  available  both  as  a
              directory  and  as a tarfile. dpkg-source will use the directory
              to create the diff, but the tarfile to create  the  .dsc.   This
              option  must be used with care - if the directory and tarfile do
              not match a bad source archive will be generated.

       -sn    Specifies to not look  for  any  original  source,  and  to  not
              generate  a diff.  The second argument, if supplied, must be the
              empty string. This is used for Debian-specific packages which do
              not  have  a  separate  upstream  source  and  therefore have no
              debianisation diffs.

       -sa or -sA
              Specifies to look for the original source archive as  a  tarfile
              or  as a directory - the second argument, if any, may be either,
              or the empty string (this is equivalent to  using  -sn).   If  a
              tarfile is found it will unpack it to create the diff and remove
              it afterwards (this is equivalent to -sp);  if  a  directory  is
              found  it  will pack it to create the original source and remove
              it afterwards (this is equivalent to -sr); if neither  is  found
              it will assume that the package has no debianisation diffs, only
              a straightforward source archive (this is  equivalent  to  -sn).
              If  both  are  found then dpkg-source will ignore the directory,
              overwriting it, if -sA was specified (this is equivalent to -sP)
              or raise an error if -sa was specified.  -sA is the default.

              The  process  fails  if  the  generated diff contains changes to
              files outside of the debian sub-directory. This  option  is  not
              allowed   in   debian/source/options   but   can   be   used  in

       Extract options (with -x):

       In all cases any existing original source tree will be removed.

       -sp    Used when extracting then the original source (if any)  will  be
              left  as  a tarfile. If it is not already located in the current
              directory or if an existing but different file is there it  will
              be copied there.  (This is the default).

       -su    Unpacks the original source tree.

       -sn    Ensures  that  the  original  source  is  neither  copied to the
              current directory nor unpacked. Any original  source  tree  that
              was in the current directory is still removed.

       All  the  -sX  options are mutually exclusive. If you specify more than
       one only the last one will be used.

              Skips application of the debian diff  on  top  of  the  upstream

   Format: 2.0
       Also  known  as wig&pen. This format is not recommended for wide-spread
       usage, the format "3.0 (quilt)" replaces  it.  Wig&pen  was  the  first
       specification of a new-generation source package format.

       The  behaviour  of  this format is the same as the "3.0 (quilt)" format
       except that it doesn't use an explicit list of patches.  All  files  in
       debian/patches/  matching  the  perl  regular expression [\w-]+ must be
       valid patches: they are applied at extraction time.

       When building a new source package, any change to the  upstream  source
       is stored in a patch named zz_debian-diff-auto.

   Format: 3.0 (native)
       This  format is an extension of the native package format as defined in
       the 1.0 format. It supports all compression methods and will ignore  by
       default  any  VCS  specific  files  and  directories  as  well  as many
       temporary files (see default value  associated  to  -I  option  in  the
       --help output).

   Format: 3.0 (quilt)
       A  source  package in this format contains at least an original tarball
       (.orig.tar.ext where ext can be gz, bz2, lzma  and  xz)  and  a  debian
       tarball  (.debian.tar.ext).  It  can  also  contain additional original
       tarballs  (.orig-component.tar.ext).   component   can   only   contain
       alphanumeric characters and dashes ("-").


       The  main  original  tarball  is  extracted  first, then all additional
       original tarballs are  extracted  in  subdirectories  named  after  the
       component  part  of  their  filename  (any  pre-existing  directory  is
       replaced). The debian  tarball  is  extracted  on  top  of  the  source
       directory  after  prior  removal  of any pre-existing debian directory.
       Note that the debian tarball must contain a debian sub-directory but it
       can   also   contain  binary  files  outside  of  that  directory  (see
       --include-binaries option).

       All    patches    listed     in     debian/patches/debian.series     or
       debian/patches/series are then applied.  If the former file is used and
       the latter one doesn't exist (or is a  symlink),  then  the  latter  is
       replaced  with a symlink to the former. This is meant to simplify usage
       of quilt to  manage  the  set  of  patches.  Note  however  that  while
       dpkg-source  parses  correctly  series files with explicit options used
       for patch application (stored on each line after the patch filename and
       one  or  more  spaces),  it does ignore those options and always expect
       patches that can be applied with the -p1 option of patch. It will  thus
       emit a warning when it encounters such options, and the build is likely
       to fail.

       Similarly to quilt's default behaviour, the patches  can  remove  files

       The  file  .pc/applied-patches  is  created  if  some patches have been
       applied during the extraction.


       All original tarballs found in the current directory are extracted in a
       temporary  directory by following the same logic as for the unpack, the
       debian directory is copied over in the  temporary  directory,  and  all
       patches  except  the automatic patch (debian-changes-version or debian-
       changes, depending on --single-debian-patch) are applied. The temporary
       directory  is compared to the source package directory and the diff (if
       non-empty) is stored in the automatic patch.  If the automatic patch is
       created/deleted,  it's  added/removed from the series file and from the
       quilt metadata.

       Any change on a binary file is not representable in  a  diff  and  will
       thus  lead  to  a failure unless the maintainer deliberately decided to
       include that modified binary file in the debian tarball (by listing  it
       in  debian/source/include-binaries).  The  build  will  also fail if it
       finds binary files in the debian sub-directory unless  they  have  been
       whitelisted through debian/source/include-binaries.

       The  updated debian directory and the list of modified binaries is then
       used to generate the debian tarball.

       The  automatically  generated  diff  doesn't  include  changes  on  VCS
       specific  files  as  well  as  many  temporary files (see default value
       associated to -i option in the --help output). In particular,  the  .pc
       directory  used  by quilt is ignored during generation of the automatic

       Note: dpkg-source expects the source tree to have all patches listed in
       the  series file applied when you generate the source package.  This is
       not the case when the source tree has  been  obtained  by  unpacking  a
       source  package  using  the  Format:  1.0 for instance. To mitigate the
       problem, dpkg-source will apply the patches by itself  if  it  believes
       that  they have not yet been applied. To detect this situation, it uses
       the following heuristic: it finds  the  list  of  supposedly  unapplied
       patches  (they  are  listed  in the series file but not in .pc/applied-
       patches), and if the first patch in that set  can  be  applied  without
       errors,  it  will  apply  them all.  The option --no-preparation can be
       used to disable this behaviour. This operation is usually done as  part
       of the --prepare-build command.

       Build options

              Allow  dpkg-source to build the source package if the version of
              the quilt metadata is the one  specified,  even  if  dpkg-source
              doesn't  know  about  it.  Effectively  this says that the given
              version of the quilt metadata is compatible with the  version  2
              that  dpkg-source  currently  supports. The version of the quilt
              metadata is stored in .pc/.version.

              Do  not  ignore  removed  files  and   include   them   in   the
              automatically generated patch.

              Include timestamp in the automatically generated patch.

              Add  all  modified binaries in the debian tarball. Also add them
              to debian/source/include-binaries: they will be added by default
              in subsequent builds and this option is thus no more needed.

              Do  not  try to prepare the build tree by applying patches which
              are apparently unapplied.

              Use       debian/patches/debian-changes        instead        of
              debian/patches/debian-changes-version   for   the  name  of  the
              automatic  patch  generated  during  build.   This   option   is
              particularly  useful when the package is maintained in a VCS and
              a patch set can't reliably be  generated.  Instead  the  current
              diff  with  upstream  should  be  stored in a single patch. When
              using   this   option,   it   is   recommended   to   create   a
              debian/source/patch-header   file   explaining  how  the  Debian
              changes can be best reviewed, for example in  the  VCS  that  is

              Automatically  create the main original tarball as empty if it's
              missing and if there are supplementary original  tarballs.  This
              option  is  meant  to  be used when the source package is just a
              bundle of multiple upstream software and where there's no "main"

              Unapply  the  patches  in the --after-build hook. This is mainly
              useful when you build  your  package  directly  in  a  VCS  that
              contains  unpatched  upstream  source and where you want to keep
              the tree unpatched even after a package build.  This  option  is
              usually  put in debian/source/local-options (it's not allowed in
              debian/source/options so that all generated source packages have
              the same behaviour by default).

              The process fails if an automatic patch has been generated. This
              option can be used to ensure  that  all  changes  were  properly
              recorded  in  separate quilt patches prior to the source package
              build. This option is not allowed in  debian/source/options  but
              can be used in debian/source/local-options.

       Extract options

              Skips  extraction  of  the debian tarball on top of the upstream

              Do not apply patches at the end of the extraction.

   Format: 3.0 (custom)
       This format is particular. It doesn't represent a real  source  package
       format  but can be used to create source packages with arbitrary files.

       Build options

       All non-option arguments  are  taken  as  files  to  integrate  in  the
       generated  source  package.  They must exist and are preferrably in the
       current directory. At least one file must be given.

              Required. Defines  the  real  format  of  the  generated  source
              package.  The generated .dsc file will contain this value in its
              Format field and not "3.0 (custom)".

   Format: 3.0 (git)
       This format is experimental. It uses a bundle of a  git  repository  to
       hold the source of a package.


       The bundle is cloned to a new git repository.

       Note  that  by  default  the  new  repository will have the same branch
       checked out that was checked out in  the  original  source.  (Typically
       "master",  but  it  could  be  anything.)  Any  other  branches will be
       available, under as `remotes/origin/`


       Before going any further, some checks are done to ensure that we  don't
       have any non-ignored uncommitted changes.

       git-bundle(1)  is  used to generate a bundle of the git repository.  By
       default, all branches and tags in the repository are  included  in  the

       Build options

              Allows  specifying  a  git ref to include in the git bundle. Use
              disables the default behavior  of  including  all  branches  and
              tags.  May  be specified multiple times. The ref can be the name
              of a branch or tag to include. It may also be any parameter that
              can  be  passed to git-rev-list(1). For example, to include only
              the master branch, use --git-ref=master. To include all tags and
              branches,  except  for  the  private branch, use --git-ref=--all

              Creates  a  shallow  clone  with  a  history  truncated  to  the
              specified number of revisions.

   Format: 3.0 (bzr)
       This  format  is experimental. It generates a single tarball containing
       the bzr repository.


       The tarball is unpacked and then bzr is used to  checkout  the  current


       Before  going any further, some checks are done to ensure that we don't
       have any non-ignored uncommitted changes.

       Then the VCS specific part of the source directory is copied over to  a
       temporary  directory.  Before  this  temporary directory is packed in a
       tarball, various cleanup are done to save space.


   no source format specified in debian/source/format
       The file debian/source/format should  always  exist  and  indicate  the
       desired  source  format.  For  backwards compatibility, format "1.0" is
       assumed when the file doesn't exist but you should not rely on this: at
       some point in the future dpkg-source will be modified to fail when that
       file doesn't exist.

       The rationale is that format "1.0" is no longer the recommended format,
       you  should  usually pick one of the newer formats ("3.0 (quilt)", "3.0
       (native)") but dpkg-source will not do this automatically for you.   If
       you want to continue using the old format, you should be explicit about
       it and put "1.0" in debian/source/format.

   the diff modifies the following upstream files
       When using source format "1.0" it is  usually  a  bad  idea  to  modify
       upstream  files  directly  as  the  changes  end  up  hidden and mostly
       undocumented in the  .diff.gz  file.  Instead  you  should  store  your
       changes  as  patches  in  the debian directory and apply them at build-
       time. To avoid this  complexity  you  can  also  use  the  format  "3.0
       (quilt)" that offers this natively.

   cannot represent change to file
       Changes  to  upstream  sources are usually stored with patch files, but
       not all changes can be represented with patches: they  can  only  alter
       the  content  of  plain  text  files.  If you try replacing a file with
       something of a different type (for example replacing a plain file  with
       a symlink or a directory), you will get this error message.

   newly created empty file file will not be represented in diff
       Empty  files can't be created with patch files. Thus this change is not
       recorded in the source package and you are warned about it.

   executable mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
   special mode perms of file will not be represented in diff
       Patch files do not  record  permissions  of  files  and  thus  modified
       permissions  are not stored in the source package. This warning reminds
       you of that fact.


       This file contains on a single line the format that should be  used  to
       build  the  source  package  (possible formats are described above). No
       leading or trailing spaces are allowed.

       This file contains a list of binary files (one per line) that should be
       included  in  the  debian  tarball.  Leading  and  trailing  spaces are
       stripped.  Lines starting with "#" are comments and are skipped.  Empty
       lines are ignored.

       This  file contains a list of long options that should be automatically
       prepended to the set of command line options of  a  dpkg-source  -b  or
       dpkg-source   --print-format   call.  Options  like  --compression  and
       --compression-level are well suited for this file.

       Each option should be put on a separate line.  Empty  lines  and  lines
       starting  with "#" are ignored. The leading "--" should be stripped and
       short options are not allowed. Optional spaces are allowed  around  the
       "=" symbol and optional quotes are allowed around the value.  Here's an
       example of such a file:

         # let dpkg-source create a debian.tar.bz2 with maximal compression
         compression = "bzip2"
         compression-level = 9
         # use debian/patches/debian-changes as automatic patch

       Note: format options are not accepted in  this  file,  you  should  use
       debian/source/format instead.

       Exactly like debian/source/options except that the file is not included
       in the generated source package. It can be useful to store a preference
       tied  to  the  maintainer  or  to  the  VCS repository where the source
       package is maintained.

       Free form text that is put on top of the automatic patch  generated  in
       formats "2.0" or "3.0 (quilt)".

       This  file  lists  all  patches  that  have to be applied (in the given
       order) on top of the upstream  source  package.  Leading  and  trailing
       spaces  are  stripped.  Lines  starting  with  "#" are comments and are
       skipped. Empty lines are ignored. Remaining lines start  with  a  patch
       filename  (relative  to  the debian/patches/ directory) up to the first
       space character or the end of line. Optional quilt options  can  follow
       up  to  the end of line or the first "#" preceded by one or more spaces
       (which marks the start of a comment up to the end of line).


       The point at which field overriding occurs compared to certain standard
       output field settings is rather confused.


       dpkg-deb(1), dpkg(1), dselect(1).


       Copyright (C) 1995-1996 Ian Jackson
       Copyright (C) 2000 Wichert Akkerman
       Copyright (C) 2008-2010 Raphael Hertzog

       This  is free software; see the GNU General Public Licence version 2 or
       later for copying conditions. There is NO WARRANTY.