debsums - check the MD5 sums of installed Debian packages
debsums [options] [package|deb] ...
Verify installed Debian package files against MD5 checksum lists from
debsums can generate checksum lists from deb archives for packages that
don’t include one.
Also check configuration files (normally excluded).
Only check configuration files.
Report changed file list to stdout (implies -s).
List packages (or debs) which don’t have an MD5 sums file.
Only report errors.
Read list of deb checksums from file.
Root directory to check (default /).
dpkg admin directory (default /var/lib/dpkg).
Directories in which to look for debs derived from the package
name (default is the current directory).
A useful value is /var/cache/apt/archives when using apt-get
autoclean or not clearing the cache at all. The command:
apt-get --reinstall -d install `debsums -l`
may be used to populate the cache with any debs not already in
Note: This doesn’t work for CD-ROM and other local sources as
packages are not copied to /var/cache. Simple file sources (all
debs in a single directory) should be added to the -p list.
Generate MD5 sums from deb contents. If the argument is a
package name rather than a deb archive, the program will look
for a deb named package_version_arch.deb in the directories
given by the -p option.
Generate MD5 sums from the deb for packages which don’t
all Ignore the on disk sums and use the one supplied in the
deb, or generated from it if none exists.
keep Write the extracted/generated sums to
Implies keep; the extracted/generated sums are not
checked against the installed package.
For backward compatibility, the short option -g is equivalent to
Report missing locale files even if localepurge is configured.
Report changed ELF files even if prelink is configured.
Treat permission errors as warnings when running as non-root.
Print help and version information.
debsums returns 0 on success, or a combination* of the following values
1 A specified package or archive name was not installed, invalid
or the installed version did not match the given archive.
2 Changed or missing package files, or checksum mismatch on an
255 Invalid option.
*If both of the first two conditions are true, the exit status will be
debsums foo bar
Check the sums for installed packages foo and bar.
debsums foo.deb bar.deb
As above, using checksums from (or generated from) the archives.
List installed packages with no checksums.
List changed package files from all installed packages with
List changed configuration files.
debsums -cagp /var/cache/apt/archives
As above, using sums from cached debs where available.
apt-get install --reinstall $(dpkg -S $(debsums -c) | cut -d : -f 1 |
Reinstalls packages with changed files.
OK The file’s md5sum is good.
FAILED The file’s md5sum does not match.
The file has been replaced by a file from a different package.
The default installation of debsums package sets the debconf boolean
value debsums/apt-autogen to be "true".
This will create /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/90debsums as:
"debsums --generate=nocheck -sp /var/cache/apt/archives";
by the postinst script (>=2.0.7). Every APT controlled package
installation processes will execute this code fragment to generate the
missing md5sums files from the binary packages.
In order to create md5sums files for the already installed packages,
you must run debsums_init once after the installation of debsums
TMPDIR Directory for extracting information and contents from package
archives (/tmp by default).
While in general the program may be run as a normal user, some packages
contain files which are not globally readable so cannot be checked.
Privileges are of course also required when generating sums with the
keep option set.
Files which have been replaced by another package may be erroneously
reported as changed.
debsums is intended primarily as a way of determining what installed
files have been locally modified by the administrator or damaged by
media errors and is of limited use as a security tool.
If you are looking for an integrity checker that can run from safe
media, do integrity checks on checksum databases and can be easily
configured to run periodically to warn the admin of changes see other
tools such as: aide, integrit, samhain, or tripwire.
Written by Brendan O’Dea <email@example.com>.
Based on a program by Christoph Lameter <firstname.lastname@example.org> and Petr
Copyright © 2002 Brendan O’Dea <email@example.com>
This is free software, licensed under the terms of the GNU General
Public License. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.