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       dcmj2pnm - Convert DICOM images to PGM, PPM, BMP, TIFF or JPEG


       dcmj2pnm [options] dcmfile-in [pnmfile-out]


       The  dcmj2pnm  utility  reads  a  DICOM  image, converts the pixel data
       according to the selected image processing options and writes  back  an
       image  in  the  well-known  PPM/PGM  file  format  (portable  pix map /
       portable gray map), PNG, Windows BMP, TIFF or JPEG (Joint  Photographic
       Experts  Group)  format.  This utility supports uncompressed as well as
       JPEG and RLE compressed DICOM images.


       dcmfile-in   DICOM input filename to be converted

       pnmfile-out  output filename to be written (default: stdout)


   general options
         -h    --help
                 print this help text and exit

                 print version information and exit

         -v    --verbose
                 verbose mode, print processing details

         -q    --quiet
                 quiet mode, print no warnings and errors

         -d    --debug
                 debug mode, print debug information

         -im   --image-info
                 info mode, print image details

   input options
       input file format:

         +f    --read-file
                 read file format or data set (default)

         +fo   --read-file-only
                 read file format only

         -f    --read-dataset
                 read data set without file meta information

       input transfer syntax:

         -t=   --read-xfer-auto
                 use TS recognition (default)

         -td   --read-xfer-detect
                 ignore TS specified in the file meta header

         -te   --read-xfer-little
                 read with explicit VR little endian TS

         -tb   --read-xfer-big
                 read with explicit VR big endian TS

         -ti   --read-xfer-implicit
                 read with implicit VR little endian TS

   image processing options
       frame selection:

         +F    --frame  [n]umber : integer
                 select specified frame (default: 1)

         +Fr   --frame-range  [n]umber [c]ount : integer
                 select c frames beginning with frame n

         +Fa   --all-frames
                 select all frames


         +Rl   --rotate-left
                 rotate image left (-90 degrees)

         +Rr   --rotate-right
                 rotate image right (+90 degrees)

         +Rtd  --rotate-top-down
                 rotate image top-down (180 degrees)


         +Lh   --flip-horizontally
                 flip image horizontally

         +Lv   --flip-vertically
                 flip image vertically

         +Lhv  --flip-both-axes
                 flip image horizontally and vertically


         +a    --recognize-aspect
                 recognize pixel aspect ratio (default)

         -a    --ignore-aspect
                 ignore pixel aspect ratio when scaling

         +i    --interpolate  [n]umber of algorithm : integer
                 use interpolation when scaling (1..2, def: 1)

         -i    --no-interpolation
                 no interpolation when scaling

         -S    --no-scaling
                 no scaling, ignore pixel aspect ratio (default)

         +Sxf  --scale-x-factor  [f]actor : float
                 scale x axis by factor, auto-compute y axis

         +Syf  --scale-y-factor  [f]actor : float
                 scale y axis by factor, auto-compute x axis

         +Sxv  --scale-x-size  [n]umber : integer
                 scale x axis to n pixels, auto-compute y axis

         +Syv  --scale-y-size  [n]umber : integer
                 scale y axis to n pixels, auto-compute x axis

       modality LUT transformation:

         -M    --no-modality
                 ignore stored modality LUT transformation

         +M    --use-modality
                 use modality LUT transformation (default)

       VOI LUT transformation:

         -W    --no-windowing
                 no VOI windowing (default)

         +Wi   --use-window  [n]umber : integer
                 use the n-th VOI window from image file

         +Wl   --use-voi-lut  [n]umber : integer
                 use the n-th VOI look up table from image file

         +Wm   --min-max-window
                 compute VOI window using min-max algorithm

         +Wn   --min-max-window-n
                 compute VOI window using min-max algorithm,
                 ignoring extreme values

         +Wr   --roi-min-max-window  [l]eft [t]op [w]idth [h]eight : integer
                 compute ROI window using min-max algorithm,
                 region of interest is specified by l,t,w,h

         +Wh   --histogram-window  [n]umber: integer
                 compute VOI window using Histogram algorithm,
                 ignoring n percent

         +Ww   --set-window  [c]enter [w]idth : float
                 compute VOI window using center c and width w

       presentation LUT transformation:

         +Pid  --identity-shape
                 presentation LUT shape IDENTITY

         +Piv  --inverse-shape
                 presentation LUT shape INVERSE

         +Pod  --lin-od-shape
                 presentation LUT shape LIN OD


         -O    --no-overlays
                 do not display overlays

         +O    --display-overlay  [n]umber : integer
                 display overlay n (0..16, 0=all, default: +O 0)

         +Omr  --ovl-replace
                 use overlay mode "Replace"
                 (default for Graphic overlays)

         +Omt  --ovl-threshold
                 use overlay mode "Threshold Replace"

         +Omc  --ovl-complement
                 use overlay mode "Complement"

         +Omv  --ovl-invert
                 use overlay mode "Invert Bitmap"

         +Omi  --ovl-roi
                 use overlay mode "Region of Interest"
                 (default for ROI overlays)

         +Osf  --set-foreground  [d]ensity : float
                 set overlay foreground density (0..1, def: 1)

         +Ost  --set-threshold  [d]ensity : float
                 set overlay threshold density (0..1, def: 0.5)

       display LUT transformation:

         +Dm   --monitor-file  [f]ilename : string
                 calibrate output according to monitor
                 characteristics defined in f

         +Dp   --printer-file  [f]ilename : string
                 calibrate output according to printer
                 characteristics defined in f

         +Da   --ambient-light  [a]mbient light : float
                 ambient light value (cd/m^2, default: file f)

         +Di   --illumination  [i]llumination : float
                 illumination value (cd/m^2, default: file f)

         +Dn   --min-density  [m]inimum optical density : float
                 Dmin value (default: off, only with +Dp)

         +Dx   --max-density  [m]aximum optical density : float
                 Dmax value (default: off, only with +Dp)

         +Dg   --gsd-function
                 use GSDF for calibration (default for +Dm/+Dp)

         +Dc   --cielab-function
                 use CIELAB function for calibration

       compatibility options:

         +Ma   --accept-acr-nema
                 accept ACR-NEMA images without photometric

         +Mp   --accept-palettes
                 accept incorrect palette attribute tags
                 (0028,111x) and (0028,121x)

         +Mm   --ignore-mlut-depth
                 ignore 3rd value of the modality LUT descriptor
                 determine bits per table entry automatically

         +Mv   --ignore-vlut-depth
                 ignore 3rd value of the VOI LUT descriptor,
                 determine bits per table entry automatically

       TIFF options:

         +Tl   --compr-lzw
                 LZW compression (default)

         +Tr   --compr-rle
                 RLE compression

         +Tn   --compr-none

         +Pd   --predictor-default
                 no LZW predictor (default)

         +Pn   --predictor-none
                 LZW predictor 1 (no prediction)

         +Ph   --predictor-horz
                 LZW predictor 2 (horizontal differencing)

         +Rs   --rows-per-strip  [r]ows : integer (default: 0)
                 rows per strip, default 8K per strip

       PNG options:

         +il   --interlace
                 create interlaced file (default)

         -il   --nointerlace
                 create non-interlaced file

         +mf   --meta-file
                 create PNG file meta information (default)

         -mf   --meta-none
                 no PNG file meta information

       JPEG options:

         +Jq   --compr-quality  [q]uality : integer (0..100, default: 90)
                 quality value for compression (in percent)

         +Js4  --sample-444
                 4:4:4 sampling (no subsampling)

         +Js2  --sample-422
                 4:2:2 subsampling (horizontal subsampling of
                 chroma components, default)

         +Js1  --sample-411
                 4:1:1 subsampling (horizontal and vertical
                subsampling of chroma components)

       other transformations:

         +G    --grayscale
                 convert to grayscale if necessary

         +P    --change-polarity
                 change polarity (invert pixel output)

         +C    --clip-region  [l]eft [t]op [w]idth [h]eight : integer
                 clip image region (l, t, w, h)

   output options
         -o    --no-output
                 do not create any output (useful with -im)

         +op   --write-raw-pnm
                 write 8-bit binary PGM/PPM (default for files)

         +opb  --write-8-bit-pnm
                 write 8-bit ASCII PGM/PPM (default for stdout)

         +opw  --write-16-bit-pnm
                 write 16-bit ASCII PGM/PPM

         +opn  --write-n-bit-pnm  [n]umber : integer
                 write n-bit ASCII PGM/PPM (1..32)

         +ob   --write-bmp
                 write 8-bit (monochrome) or 24-bit (color) BMP

         +obp  --write-8-bit-bmp
                 write 8-bit palette BMP (monochrome only)

         +obt  --write-24-bit-bmp
                 write 24-bit truecolor BMP

         +ot   --write-tiff
                 write 8-bit (monochrome) or 24-bit (color) TIFF

         +on   --write-png
                 write 8-bit (monochrome) or 24-bit (color) PNG

         +oj   --write-jpeg
                 write 8-bit lossy JPEG (baseline)


       The  --write-tiff  option  is  only  available  when  DCMTK  has   been
       configured  and  compiled  with  support  for the external libtiff TIFF
       library. The availability of the TIFF compression  options  depends  on
       the  libtiff  configuration.  In particular, the patented LZW algorithm
       may not be available.

       The --write-png option is only available when DCMTK has been configured
       and  compiled  with  support  for  the  external  libpng  PNG  library.
       Interlace enables progressive image view while loading  the  PNG  file.
       Only a few applications take care of the metainfo (TEXT) in a PNG file.

       Sample monitor and printer characteristics files are available  in  the
       data folder.


       All  command  line  tools  use  the  following notation for parameters:
       square brackets enclose optional  values  (0-1),  three  trailing  dots
       indicate  that multiple values are allowed (1-n), a combination of both
       means 0 to n values.

       Command line options are distinguished from parameters by a leading ’+’
       or  ’-’ sign, respectively. Usually, order and position of command line
       options are arbitrary (i.e. they  can  appear  anywhere).  However,  if
       options  are  mutually exclusive the rightmost appearance is used. This
       behaviour conforms to the standard  evaluation  rules  of  common  Unix

       In  addition,  one  or more command files can be specified using an ’@’
       sign as a prefix to the filename (e.g. @command.txt).  Such  a  command
       argument  is  replaced  by  the  content of the corresponding text file
       (multiple whitespaces are treated as a single separator) prior  to  any
       further  evaluation.  Please  note  that  a command file cannot contain
       another command file. This simple  but  effective  approach  allows  to
       summarize  common combinations of options/parameters and avoids longish
       and  confusing  command  lines  (an  example  is   provided   in   file


       The  dcmj2pnm  utility  will  attempt  to  load DICOM data dictionaries
       specified in the DCMDICTPATH environment variable. By default, i.e.  if
       the   DCMDICTPATH   environment   variable   is   not   set,  the  file
       <PREFIX>/lib/dicom.dic will be loaded unless the  dictionary  is  built
       into the application (default for Windows).

       The   default   behaviour  should  be  preferred  and  the  DCMDICTPATH
       environment variable only used when alternative data  dictionaries  are
       required.  The  DCMDICTPATH environment variable has the same format as
       the Unix shell PATH variable in that a colon (’:’)  separates  entries.
       The  data  dictionary  code will attempt to load each file specified in
       the DCMDICTPATH environment  variable.  It  is  an  error  if  no  data
       dictionary can be loaded.


       share/data/camera.lut - sample characteristics file of a camera
       share/data/monitor.lut - sample characteristics file of a monitor
       share/data/printer.lut - sample characteristics file of a printer
       share/data/scanner.lut - sample characteristics file of a scanner




       Copyright  (C)  2001-2005  by Kuratorium OFFIS e.V., Escherweg 2, 26121
       Oldenburg, Germany.