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       db4.8_upgrade  - Upgrade the Berkeley DB version to the current release


       db4.8_upgrade [-NsVv] [-h home] [-P password] file ...


       The db4.8_upgrade utility upgrades the Berkeley DB version  of  one  or
       more  files  and  the  databases  they  contain  to the current release


       -h     Specify a  home  directory  for  the  database  environment;  by
              default, the current working directory is used.

       -N     Do  not  acquire  shared  region  mutexes  while running.  Other
              problems, such as potentially fatal errors in Berkeley DB,  will
              be  ignored as well.  This option is intended only for debugging
              errors, and should not be used under any other circumstances.

       -P     Specify an environment password.  Although Berkeley DB utilities
              overwrite  password  strings as soon as possible, be aware there
              may be a window of vulnerability on systems  where  unprivileged
              users  can see command-line arguments or where utilities are not
              able  to  overwrite  the  memory  containing  the   command-line

       -s     This  flag  is  only  meaningful  when  upgrading databases from
              releases before the Berkeley DB 3.1 release.

              As part of the upgrade from the Berkeley DB 3.0 release  to  the
              3.1 release, the on-disk format of duplicate data items changed.
              To correctly  upgrade  the  format  requires  that  applications
              specify  whether duplicate data items in the database are sorted
              or not. Specifying the -s flag means  that  the  duplicates  are
              sorted; otherwise, they are assumed to be unsorted.  Incorrectly
              specifying  the  value  of  this  flag  may  lead  to   database

              Because  the  db4.8_upgrade  utility  upgrades  a  physical file
              (including all the databases it contains), it is not possible to
              use  db4.8_upgrade  to upgrade files where some of the databases
              it includes have sorted duplicate data items, and  some  of  the
              databases it includes have unsorted duplicate data items. If the
              file does not have more than a single database, if the databases
              do  not  support  duplicate  data items, or if all the databases
              that support duplicate data items  support  the  same  style  of
              duplicates  (either sorted or unsorted), db4.8_upgrade will work
              correctly as  long  as  the  -s  flag  is  correctly  specified.
              Otherwise,  the file cannot be upgraded using db4.8_upgrade, and
              must be upgraded manually using the  db4.8_dump  and  db4.8_load

       -V     Write  the  library  version  number to the standard output, and

       -v     Run in verbose mode, displaying a message  for  each  successful

       It  is important to realize that Berkeley DB database upgrades are done
       in place, and so are potentially destructive. This means  that  if  the
       system  crashes  during  the  upgrade  procedure,  or  if  the  upgrade
       procedure runs out of disk space, the  databases  may  be  left  in  an
       inconsistent and unrecoverable state.

       The  db4.8_upgrade  utility  may be used with a Berkeley DB environment
       (as described for the -h option, the environment variable  DB_HOME,  or
       because  the  utility  was  run in a directory containing a Berkeley DB
       environment).  In order to avoid environment corruption  when  using  a
       Berkeley  DB  environment,  db4.8_upgrade  should  always  be given the
       chance to detach from the environment and exit  gracefully.   To  cause
       db4.8_upgrade  to  release  all environment resources and exit cleanly,
       send it an interrupt signal (SIGINT).

       The db4.8_upgrade utility exits 0  on  success,  and  >0  if  an  error


              If  the  -h option is not specified and the environment variable
              DB_HOME is set, it is used as the path of the database home,  as
              described in DB_ENV->open.


       Sleepycat Software, Inc. This manual page was created based on the HTML
       documentation  for  db_upgrade  from  Sleepycat,  by  Thijs   Kinkhorst
       <>,  for  the  Debian  system  (but  may  be used by

                                28 January 2005