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       ctanglex, cweavex - translate CWEB(x) to C (or C++) and/or TeX


       ctanglex  [  -bhpl  ]  [  +cs+  ]  cwebfile[.w]  [(changefile[.ch]|+|-)
       cweavex [ -bhpx ]  [  +cs+dtefauwm  ]  [  +isearchpath  ]  cwebfile[.w]
       [(changefile[.ch]|+|-) [outputfile[.tex]]]


       The  ctanglex  program  converts  a  CWEB(x)  source  document into a C
       program that may be  compiled  in  the  usual  way.   The  output  file
       includes #line specifications so that error reporting and debugging can
       be done in terms of the CWEB(x) source file.

       The cweavex program converts the same CWEB(x) file into a TeX file that
       may  be  formatted  and printed in the usual way.  It takes appropriate
       care  of  typographic  details  like  page  layout  and  the   use   of
       indentation,  italics, boldface, etc., and it supplies extensive cross-
       reference information that it gathers automatically.

       CWEBx allows you to  prepare  a  single  document  containing  all  the
       information  that  is needed both to produce a compilable C program and
       to produce a well-formatted document describing the program in as  much
       detail  as the writer may desire.  The user of CWEBx ought to have some
       familiarity with TeX as well as knowledge of C.

       The command line should have one, two, or three names on it. The  first
       is  taken  as  the  CWEB(x)  file  (and  ‘.w’  is  added if there is no
       extension). If that file cannot be  opened,  the  extension  ‘.web’  is
       tried  instead.  If  there  is  a second name, it is a change file (and
       ‘.ch’ is added if there is no extension), otherwise  the  name  of  the
       CWEB(x)  file  with  its extension replaced by ‘.ch’ is tried as change
       file name; if there no such file, no change file is used. Instead of  a
       change  file  one may specify ‘-’ or ‘+’; ‘-’ means do not use a change
       file, and ‘+’ means use a change file only if a  file  of  the  default
       name  exists  (just  as  if  only  one name was given). The change file
       overrides parts of the CWEB(x) file, as described in the documentation.
       A  third  name,  if present, specifies the output file name explicitly.
       The default output file name is that of the CWEB(x) file with extension
       ‘.c’ (for ctanglex ) or ‘.tex’ (for cweavex ); the default extension is
       also applied if a third name is given without extension.

       Options in the command line may be either turned on with  ‘+’  and  off
       with  ‘-’;  several  characters  may follow in the same argument, which
       indicate  several  options  that  are  turned   on   respectively   off
       simultaneously.  In fact, the options are processed from left to right,
       so a sequence like  ‘-b  +b’  is  equivalent  to  ‘+b’  (which  is  the

       The +b option shows a banner line on your terminal. The +h option shows
       a happy message if the processing was successful. The +p  option  shows
       progress  reports  (starred  module  numbers)  as  the processing takes
       place. If you  say  ‘-bhp’,  you  get  no  terminal  output  but  error

       The   +c  option  emulates  Levy/Knuth  CWEB.   The  +s  option  prints
       statistics about memory usage at the end of a run  (assuming  that  the
       programs  have  been  compiled  with  the -DSTAT switch, as they are by
       default on Debian systems).  By setting the option ++  one  can  select
       the C++ language instead of C.

       The  option  -l  is  applicable  to ctanglex only; when selected, the C
       output is made more readable for humans by  omitting  #line  directives
       and preserving layout and comments.

       There  are several other options applicable to cweavex only. The option
       -x means omit the index and table of contents. By setting the option +d
       one  causes  cweavex  to  report  problems  encountered  in parsing the
       program fragments. With +t the the  index  and  module  names  will  be
       written  to  separate files. With +e the table of contents is forced to
       start on a new sheet when using a two-sided printer.  The options +f  ,
       +a , +u , +w , and +m change the style in which programs are formatted:
       +f means force a newline after every simple statement in the  formatted
       output,  and  +a  means  also  force  a  newline  before  every  simple
       statement, even if it follows a label or a  condition;  the  option  +u
       will  change  the  style so that a line break goes after ‘{’ instead of
       before, thus preventing them from  aligning  with  their  matching  ‘}’
       (this is the style of Levy/Knuth CWEB), while the option +w puts a line
       break both before and after ‘{’, producing a more symmetric  layout  at
       the  expense of some extra paper. Finally, the option +m avoids forcing
       line breaks between successive declarations in a local block.  With the
       option  +isearchpath  one can specify a place to look for header files,
       when they are not found in the current directory. The string  following
       the  ‘+i’  will  be  stored  and preprended to a header file name if it
       cannot be found otherwise (so the string should  probably  end  with  a
       pathname  separator  ’/’).  More  than  one  such  search  path  can be
       specified; they will be tried in order from left to right.


       /usr/share/texmf/macros/litprog/cwebxmac.tex TeX macros used by cweavex
       /usr/share/texmf/macros/litprog/cwebcmac.tex   TeX   macros   used   in
       compatibility mode.
       /usr/share/texmf/macros/litprog/cwebhmac.tex TeX macros  which  can  be
       input after cwebxmac to produce hyperlinks in the output.
       /usr/doc/cwebx/manual.tex The user manual source.
       /usr/doc/cwebx/manual.tex The user manual in DVI format.


       Literate Programming by D. E. Knuth. (CSLI, Stanford, 1992)
       tex(1), cc(1), cweb(1) and web(1).


       Don  Knuth  wrote  WEB  for  TeX  and  Pascal. Silvio Levy designed and
       developed CWEB by adapting the WEB conventions to  C  and  by  recoding
       everything  in  CWEB.  Frank Jensen adapted the programs to ANSI/ISO C,
       and Marc van Leeuwen made numerous changes for version x3.0, and  wrote
       a new manual.


       The  syntactic support for C++ does not cover that language completely,
       so formatting of complex C++ code may be bad.

                                    7/12/90                           CWEBX(1)