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       cscope - interactively examine a C program


       cscope    [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVv]    [-Fsymfile]   [-freffile]   [-Iincdir]
       [-inamefile] [-0123456789pattern] [-pn] [-sdir] [files]


       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user  to
       browse through C source files for specified elements of code.

       By  default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y)
       source files in the current directory.  cscope may also be invoked  for
       source files named on the command line. In either case, cscope searches
       the standard directories for #include files that it does  not  find  in
       the  current  directory.   cscope uses a symbol cross-reference, called
       cscope.out by default, to locate  functions,  function  calls,  macros,
       variables, and preprocessor symbols in the files.

       cscope  builds  the symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on
       the source files  for  the  program  being  browsed.  On  a  subsequent
       invocation,  cscope  rebuilds the cross-reference only if a source file
       has changed or the list of source files is different. When  the  cross-
       reference  is rebuilt, the data for the unchanged files are copied from
       the old cross-reference, which makes rebuilding faster than the initial


       Some  command line arguments can only occur as the only argument in the
       execution of cscope.  They cause the program to  just  print  out  some
       output and exit immediately:

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -V     Print  on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       --help Same as -h

              Same as -V

       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that  is,
              do not compress the data.

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

              Read  symbol  reference lines from symfile.  (A symbol reference
              file is created by > and >>, and can also be read  using  the  <
              command,   described   under  ‘‘Issuing  Subsequent  Requests’’,

              Use reffile as the cross-reference  file  name  instead  of  the
              default "cscope.out".

              Look  in  incdir  (before looking in $INCDIR, the standard place
              for header files, normally /usr/include) for any #include  files
              whose  names  do not begin with ‘‘/’’ and that are not specified
              on the command line or in namefile below.  (The  #include  files
              may  be  specified with either double quotes or angle brackets.)
              The incdir directory is searched  in  addition  to  the  current
              directory (which is searched first) and the standard list (which
              is searched last). If more than one occurrence  of  -I  appears,
              the  directories  are  searched  in the order they appear on the
              command line.

              Browse through all  source  files  whose  names  are  listed  in
              namefile  (file  names  separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines)
              instead  of  the  default  name  list  file,  which  is   called
              cscope.files.  If  this  option is specified, cscope ignores any
              file names appearing on the command line. The argument  namefile
              can  be set to ‘‘-’’ to accept a list of files from the standard
              input.  Filenames in the namefile that contain  whitespace  have
              to   be   enclosed  in  "double  quotes".   Inside  such  quoted
              filenames, any double-quote and backslash characters have to  be
              escaped by backslashes.

       -k     ‘‘Kernel  Mode’’,  turns  off the use of the default include dir
              (usually /usr/include) when building the database, since  kernel
              source trees generally do not use it.

       -L     Do  a single search with line-oriented output when used with the
              -num pattern option.

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ‘‘Line-Oriented Interface’’ below).

              Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -Ppath Prepend  path  to  relative  file  names  in  a pre-built cross-
              reference file so you do not have to  change  to  the  directory
              where  the  cross-reference  file was built. This option is only
              valid with the -d option.

       -pn    Display the last n file path components instead of  the  default
              (1). Use 0 not to display the file name at all.

       -q     Enable  fast  symbol  lookup  via an inverted index. This option
              causes  cscope  to  create   2   more   files   (default   names
              ‘‘’’  and  ‘‘cscope.po.out’’)  in  addition  to the
              normal database. This allows a faster  symbol  search  algorithm
              that  provides  noticeably  faster  lookup performance for large

       -R     Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

       -sdir  Look in dir for additional source files. This option is  ignored
              if source files are given on the command line.

       -T     Use  only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.
              A regular expression containing special characters other than  a
              period  (.)  will  not match any symbol if its minimum length is
              greater than eight characters.

       -U     Check file time stamps. This option will update the  time  stamp
              on the database even if no files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally  build the cross-reference file (assume that all
              files have changed).

       -v     Be more verbose in line-oriented mode.  Output progress  updates
              during database building and searches.

       files  A list of file names to operate on.

       The  -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files

   Requesting the initial search
       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:

       Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the  desired  input
       field, type the text to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

   Issuing subsequent requests
       If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can
       be used:

              Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

              Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or
              move  to  the  previous  matching  line (if the cursor is in the
              matching line list.)

       <Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is  in  the  menu)  or
              move to the next matching line (if the cursor is in the matching
              line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read lines from a  file  that  is  in  symbol  reference  format
              (created by > or >>), just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter  all  lines  through  a  shell  command  and  display the
              resulting lines, replacing the lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe all lines to a  shell  command  and  display  them  without
              changing them.

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

              Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle  ignore/use  letter  case  when searching. (When ignoring
              letter  case,  search  for  ‘‘FILE’’  will  match  ‘‘File’’  and

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE: If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one
       of the above commands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the
       new  text,  and then it will display the lines containing the old text.
       Select the lines to be changed with these single-character commands:

              Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

              Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys
              If your terminal has arrow keys that work in  vi,  you  can  use
              them to move around the input fields. The up-arrow key is useful
              to move to the previous input field instead of using  the  <Tab>
              key repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they
              will act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respectively.

   Line-Oriented interface
       The -l option lets you use cscope  where  a  screen-oriented  interface
       would not be useful, for example, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line  starting
       with  the  field  number  (counting from 0) immediately followed by the
       search pattern, for example, ‘‘lmain’’ finds the definition of the main

       If  you  just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L
       and -num pattern options, and you won’t get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For each reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the  file
       name,  function  name, line number, and line text, separated by spaces,
       for example, main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

       Note that the editor is not  called  to  display  a  single  reference,
       unlike the screen-oriented interface.

       You  can  use  the  c  command  to  toggle  ignore/use letter case when
       searching. (When ignoring letter case, search for ‘‘FILE’’  will  match
       ‘‘File’’ and ‘‘file’’.)

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope  will  quit  when  it  detects  end-of-file,  or  when the first
       character of an input line is ‘‘^d’’ or ‘‘q’’.


              Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you  wish
              to  use  a  different  editor with cscope than that specified by
              your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

              Format of the line number flag  for  your  editor.  By  default,
              cscope  invokes  your  editor  via the equivalent of ‘‘editor +N
              file’’, where ‘‘N’’ is the line number that  the  editor  should
              jump  to.  This  format  is  used  by both emacs and vi. If your
              editor needs something different, specify it in  this  variable,
              with  ‘‘%s’’  as a placeholder for the line number.  Ex: if your
              editor needs to be invoked as ‘‘editor -#103  file’’  to  go  to
              line 103, set this variable to ‘‘-#%s’’.

              Set  this variable to ‘‘yes’’ if your editor needs to be invoked
              with the line number option after the filename to be edited.  To
              continue the example from CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor
              needs to see ‘‘editor  file  -#number’’,  set  this  environment
              variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do not need
              to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

              Colon-separated list  of  directories  to  search  for  #include

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

              Colon-separated  list  of  directories  to search for additional
              source files.

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

              Terminal information directory full path name. If your  terminal
              is  not  in  the  standard  terminfo  directory,  see curses and
              terminfo for how to make your own terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less),  which  overrides
              EDITOR (see above).

       VPATH  A  colon-separated  list  of  directories, each of which has the
              same directory structure below  it.  If  VPATH  is  set,  cscope
              searches for source files in the directories specified; if it is
              not set, cscope searches only in the current directory.


              Default files containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list
              of source files (overridden by the -i option).

              Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which
              is put in the home directory if it  cannot  be  created  in  the
              current directory.
              Default  files  containing  the  inverted  index  used for quick
              symbol searching (-q option). If you use the -f option to rename
              the cross-reference file (so it’s not cscope.out), the names for
              these inverted index files will be created by adding
               .in and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you
              indicated  -f  xyz,  then  these files would be named and

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).


       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces, tabs,  vtabs,  form  feeds  or  carriage
              returns, not including newlines

       args   is any string that does not contain a ‘‘"’’ or a newline

       white  is  zero  or  more  spaces,  tabs,  vtabs,  form feeds, carriage
              returns or newlines

              are zero or more argument  declarations  (arg_decs  may  include
              comments and white space)

       It  is  not  necessary  for  a  function  declaration  to  start at the
       beginning of a line. The return type may  precede  the  function  name;
       cscope  will still recognize the declaration. Function definitions that
       deviate from this form will not be recognized by cscope.

       The ‘‘Function’’ column of the search output for the menu  option  Find
       functions  called  by  this function: input field will only display the
       first function called in the line, that is, for this function

                return (f() + g());

       the display would be

          Functions called by this function: e
          File Function Line
          a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition  or  call  may  not  be  recognized
       because  of  braces  inside  #if  statements.  Similarly,  the use of a
       variable may be incorrectly recognized as a definition.

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will  be  incorrectly
       recognized as a global definition, for example,

        LDFILE  *
        #if AR16WR

       Preprocessor  statements  can  also prevent the recognition of a global
       definition, for example,

        char flag
        #ifdef ALLOCATE_STORAGE
             = -1

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a
       function call, for example,

                void g();

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope  recognizes  C++  classes  by looking for the class keyword, but
       doesn’t recognize that  a  struct  is  also  a  class,  so  it  doesn’t
       recognize  inline  member  function definitions in a structure. It also
       doesn’t expect the class keyword in  a  typedef  ,  so  it  incorrectly
       recognizes X as a definition in

        typedef class X  *  Y;

       It also doesn’t recognize operator function definitions

        Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)

       Nor  does  it  recognize  function  definitions with a function pointer

        ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
          int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))