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       cs2cs - cartographic coordinate system filter


       cs2cs [ -eEfIlrstvwW [ args ] ] [ +opts[=arg] ]
             [ +to [+opts[=arg]] ] file[s]


       Cs2cs  performs  transformation  between  the  source  and  destination
       cartographic  coordinate  system  on  a  set  of  input  points.    The
       coordinate   system  transformation  can  include  translation  between
       projected and geographic coordinates as  well  as  the  application  of
       datum shifts.

       The following control parameters can appear in any order:

       -I     method   to   specify  inverse  translation,  convert  from  +to
              coordinate system to the primary coordinate system defined.

       -ta    A specifies a character  employed  as  the  first  character  to
              denote  a  control line to be passed through without processing.
              This option applicable to ascii input only.  (# is  the  default

       -e string
              String  is  an  arbitrary  string  to  be  output if an error is
              detected during data transformations.   The  default  value  is:
              *\t*.   Note  that  if the -b, -i or -o options are employed, an
              error is returned as HUGE_VAL value for both return values.

       -E     causes the input coordinates to be copied  to  the  output  line
              prior to printing the converted values.

              List  projection identifiers with -l, -lp or -lP (expanded) that
              can be selected with +proj.  -l=id gives expanded description of
              projection id.  List ellipsoid identifiers with -le, that can be
              selected with +ellps, -lu list of cartesian to meter  conversion
              factors  that  can be selected with +units or -ld list of datums
              that can be selected with +datum.

       -r     This options reverses the  order  of  the  expected  input  from
              longitude-latitude or x-y to latitude-longitude or y-x.

       -s     This  options  reverses  the  order  of  the  output from x-y or
              longitude-latitude to y-x or latitude-longitude.

       -f format
              Format is a printf format string to  control  the  form  of  the
              output  values.   For inverse projections, the output will be in
              degrees when this option is employed.  If a format is  specified
              for  inverse  projection  the  output  data  will  be in decimal
              degrees.  The default format is "%.2f"  for  forward  projection
              and DMS for inverse.

              N  is  the number of significant fractional digits to employ for
              seconds output  (when  the  option  is  not  specified,  -w3  is
              assumed).  When -W is employed the fields will be constant width
              and with leading zeroes.

       -v     causes a listing of cartographic control parameters  tested  for
              and used by the program to be printed prior to input data.

       The   +args   run-line   arguments  are  associated  with  cartographic
       parameters  and  usage  varies  with  projection  and  for  a  complete
       description   see  Cartographic  Projection  Procedures  for  the  UNIX
       EnvironmentA Users  Manual  )  and  supplementary  documentation  for
       Release 4.

       The  cs2cs  program  requires  two  coordinate system definitions.  The
       first (or primary is defined based on  all  projection  parameters  not
       appearing  after the +to argument.  All projection parameters appearing
       after the +to argument are considered  the  definition  of  the  second
       coordinate  system.  If there is no second coordinate system defined, a
       geographic coordinate system based on the datum and  ellipsoid  of  the
       source  coordinate  system  is  assumed.   Note  that  the  source  and
       destination  coordinate  system  can  both  be  projections,  both   be
       geographic, or one of each and may have the same or different datums.

       Additional  projection  control  parameters  may  be  contained  in two
       auxiliary control files: the first is optionally  referenced  with  the
       +init=file:id  and the second is always processed after the name of the
       projection has  been  established  from  either  the  run-line  or  the
       contents of +init file.  The environment parameter PROJ_LIB establishes
       the default directory for a file reference without  an  absolute  path.
       This is also used for supporting files like datum shift files.

       One or more files (processed in left to right order) specify the source
       of data to be transformed.  A - will specify the location of processing
       standard  input.  If no files are specified, the input is assumed to be
       from stdin.  For input data the two data values must be  in  the  first
       two  white  space  separated  fields and when both input and output are
       ASCII all trailing portions of the  input  line  are  appended  to  the
       output line.

       Input  geographic  data  (longitude and latitude) must be in DMS format
       and input cartesian data must be in units consistent with the ellipsoid
       major  axis or sphere radius units.  Output geographic coordinates will
       be in DMS (if the -w switch is not employed) and precise to 0.001" with
       trailing, zero-valued minute-second fields deleted.


       The following script
             cs2cs +proj=latlong +datum=NAD83
                   +to +proj=utm +zone=10 +datum=NAD27 -r <<EOF
             45d15’33.1"   111.5W
             45d15.551666667N   -111d30
             +45.25919444444    111d30’000w
       will  transform  the  input  NAD83  geographic  coordinates  into NAD27
       coordinates  in  the  UTM  projection  with  zone  10  selected.    The
       geographic  values of this example are equivalent and meant as examples
       of various forms of DMS input.  The x-y  output  data  will  appear  as
       three lines of:
             1402285.99      5076292.42 0.000


       Cartographic  Projection  Procedures  for the UNIX EnvironmentA Users
       Manual, (Evenden, 1990, Open-file report 90-284).
       Map Projections Used by the U. S. Geological Survey (Snyder, 1984, USGS
       Bulletin 1532).
       Map ProjectionsA Working Manual (Snyder, 1988, USGS Prof. Paper 1395).
       An Album of Map Projections (Snyder & Voxland, 1989, USGS  Prof.  Paper


                              2000/03/21 Rel. 4.4                      PROJ(1)