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       cdrskin - burns preformatted data to CD, DVD, and BD via libburn.


       cdrskin [options|track_source_addresses]


       cdrskin  is  a  program  that  provides some of cdrecord's options in a
       compatible way for CD media. With DVD and BD it has its own ways.   You
       do not need to be superuser for its daily usage.

   Overview of features:
       Blanking of CD-RW and DVD-RW.
       Formatting of DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
       Burning of data or audio tracks to CD,
       either in versatile Track at Once mode (TAO)
       or in Session at Once mode for seamless tracks.
       Multi session on CD (follow-up sessions in TAO only)
       or on DVD-R[W] (in Incremental mode) or DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Single session on DVD-RW or DVD-R (Disk-at-once).
       Single session or emulated ISO-9660 multi-session
       on overwriteable DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE
       or on data file or block device.
       Bus  scan,  burnfree,  speed  options,  retrieving media info, padding,
       See section EXAMPLES at the end of this text.

   General information paragraphs:
       Track recording model
       Write mode selection
       Recordable CD Media
       Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media
       Overwriteable DVD or BD Media
       Drive preparation and addressing
       Emulated drives

   Track recording model:
       The input-output entities which get processed  are  called  tracks.   A
       track stores a stream of bytes.
       Each track is initiated by one track source address argument, which may
       either be "-" for standard input or the address of a readable file.  If
       no write mode is given explicitly then one will be chosen which matches
       the peculiarities of track sources and the state of the output media.

       More than one track can be burned by a single run of cdrskin.   In  the
       terms of the MMC standard all tracks written by the same run constitute
       a session.
       Some media types can be kept appendable so that further tracks  can  be
       written  to  them  in  subsequent  runs of cdrskin (see option -multi).
       Info about the addresses of burned tracks is kept in a table of content
       (TOC)  on  media  and  can  be retrieved via cdrskin option -toc.  This
       information is also used by the operating systems' CD-ROM read drivers.

       In  general  there are two types of tracks: data and audio. They differ
       in sector size, throughput and  readability  via  the  systems'  CD-ROM
       drivers  resp.  by music CD players. With DVD and BD there is only type
       If not explicitly option -audio is given, then any track is  burned  as
       type  data,  unless  the  track  source is a file with suffix ".wav" or
       ".au" and has a header part which identifies it as  MS-WAVE  resp.  SUN
       Audio  with  suitable parameters. Such files are burned as audio tracks
       by default.

       While  audio  tracks  just  contain  a  given  time  span  of  acoustic
       vibrations,  data  tracks  may  have an arbitray meaning. Nevertheless,
       ISO-9660 filesystems are established as a format which can represent  a
       tree  of  directories  and  files  on all major operating systems. Such
       filesystem images can be produced by programs mkisofs or genisoimage or
       xorriso.   They  can  also  be extended by follow-up tracks if prepared
       properly.  See the man pages of said  programs.   cdrskin  is  able  to
       fulfill the needs about their option -C.
       Another type of data track content are archive formats which originally
       have been developed for magnetic  tapes.  Only  formats  which  mark  a
       detectable  end-of-archive  in  their  data  are suitable, though. Well
       tested are the archivers afio and star. Not suitable seems GNU tar.

   Write mode selection:
       In general there are two approaches for writing media:
       A permissive mode depicted by option  -tao  which  needs  no  predicted
       track   size   and   allows  to  make  use  of  eventual  multi-session
       A more restrictive mode -sao  (alias  -dao)  which  usually  demands  a
       predictable track size and is not necessarily capable of multi-session.
       It may have advantages for some readers resp. players of  the  recorded
       If  none  of  the  options -dao, -tao or -sao is given then the program
       will try to choose a write mode which  matches  the  defined  recording
       job,  the capabilities of the drive and the state of the present media.
       So the mentioning of write modes in the following paragraphs and in the
       examples  is  not  so  much  a  demand  that  the user shall choose one
       explicitly,  but  rather  an  illustration  of  what  to  expect   with
       particular media types.

   Recordable CD Media:
       CD-R  can  be initially written only once and eventually extended until
       they get closed (or are spoiled because they are  overly  full).  After
       that  they  are  read-only. Closing is done automatically unless option
       -multi is given which keeps the media appendable.
       Write mode -tao allows to use track  sources  of  unpredictable  length
       (like  stdin) and allows to write further sessions to appendable media.
       -sao produces audio sessions with seamless tracks but  needs  predicted
       track sizes and cannot append sessions to media.
       CD-RW  media can be blanked to make them re-usable for another round of
       overwriting. Usually blank=fast is the  appropriate  option.   Blanking
       damages   the   previous  content  but  does  not  make  it  completely
       unreadable. It is no effective privacy precaution.  Multiple cycles  of
       blanking and overwriting with random numbers might be needed.

   Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media:
       Currently  DVD-RW,  DVD-R  ,  DVD+R[/DL],  and BD-R can be used for the
       Sequential recording model. It resembles the model of  CD  media.  Only
       DVD-RW can be blanked and re-used from scratch.
       DVD-RW   are   sequential  media  if  they  are  in  state  "Sequential
       Recording".  The media must  be  either  blank  or  appendable.   Newly
       purchased  DVD-RW  and  DVD-R media are in this state.  Used DVD-RW get
       into blank sequential state by option blank=deformat_sequential .
       With DVD-R[W] two write modes may be available:
       Mode DAO has many restrictions. It does not work with appendable media,
       allows  no  -multi and only a single track. The size of the track needs
       to be known in advance. So either its source has to be a disk  file  of
       recognizable size or the size has to be announced explicitly by options
       tsize= or tao_to_sao_tsize= .
       DAO is the  only  mode  for  media  which  do  not  offer  feature  21h
       Incremental  Streaming.  DAO  may also be selected explicitly by option
       -sao .  Program growisofs uses DAO on  sequential  DVD-R[W]  media  for
       maximum DVD-ROM/-Video compatibility.
       The  other mode, Incremental Streaming, is the default write mode if it
       is available and if the restrictions of  DAO  would  prevent  the  job.
       Incremental  Streaming  may be selected explicitly by option -tao as it
       resembles much CD TAO by allowing track sources of  unpredicted  length
       and  to  keep media appendable by option -multi .  The only restriction
       towards CD-R[W] is the lack of support  for  -audio  tracks.   Multiple
       tracks per session are permissible.
       The  write  modes  for  DVD+R[/DL]  and  BD-R resemble those with DVD-R
       except that each track gets wrapped in an  own  session.  There  is  no
       -dummy writing with DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Quite  deliberately  write  mode  -sao  insists  in  the tradition of a
       predicted track size and blank media, whereas -tao  writes  the  tracks
       open ended and allows appendable media.
       BD-R  may be formatted before first use to enable the Defect Management
       which might catch and repair some bad spots  at  the  expense  of  slow
       speed even with flawless media.
       Note:  Option  -multi  might  make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM
       drives.  Best reader compatibility is  achieved  without  it  (i.e.  by
       single session media).

   Overwriteable DVD or BD Media:
       Currently  types  DVD+RW,  DVD-RW, DVD-RAM and BD-RE can be overwritten
       via cdrskin.
       Option -audio is not allowed. Only one track is allowed.  Option -multi
       cannot  mark  a  recognizable  end  of  overwriteable media.  Therefore
       -multi is banned unless ISO-9660 images shall be expandable by help  of
       option  --grow_overwriteable_iso  .   Without this option or without an
       ISO-9660 filesystem image  present  on  media,  -toc  does  not  return
       information  about  the  media  content  and media get treated as blank
       regardless wether they hold data or not.
       Currently there is no difference between -sao and -tao. If  ever,  then
       -tao will be the mode which preserves the current behavior.

       DVD+RW and DVD-RAM media need no special initial formatting. They offer
       a single continuous data area for blockwise random access.  BD-RE  need
       explicit    formatting    before    use.    See    blank=as_needed   or
       blank=format_defectmgt .
       DVD-RW are sold in state "Sequential Recording". To become suitable for
       the  Overwriteable  DVD  recording  model they need to get formatted to
       state "Restricted Overwrite". Then they behave much like  DVD+RW.  This
       formatting can be done by option blank=format_overwrite .
       Several  programs  like  dvd+rw-format, cdrecord, wodim, or cdrskin can
       bring a DVD-RW out  of  overwriteable  state  so  that  it  has  to  be
       formatted again. If in doubt, just give it a try.

   Drive preparation and addressing:
       The  drives,  CD,  DVD, or BD burners, are accessed via addresses which
       are specific to libburn and the operating system. Those  addresses  get
       listed by a run of cdrskin --devices.
       On  Linux,  they  are  device files which traditionally do not offer w-
       permissions for normal users. Because libburn needs  rw-permission,  it
       might  be  only  the  superuser  who  is  able to get this list without
       further precautions.
       It is consensus that chmod a+rw /dev/sr0 or chmod a+rw /dev/hdc is less
       security  sensitive  than  chmod u+s,a+x /usr/bin/cdrskin. The risk for
       the drive is somewhat higher but the overall system  is  much  less  at
       stake.   Consider to restrict rw-access to a single group which bundles
       the users  who  are  allowed  to  use  the  burner  drive  (like  group

       If  you  only  got  one CD capable drive then you may leave out cdrskin
       option dev=. Else you should use this option to address the  drive  you
       cdrskin  option  dev=  not  only  accepts the listed addresses but also
       traditional cdrecord SCSI addresses which on  Linux  consist  of  three
       numbers:  Bus,Target,Lun.  There is also a related address family "ATA"
       which accesses IDE drives not under  control  of  Linux  SCSI  drivers:
       See option -scanbus for getting a list of cdrecord style addresses.
       Further  are accepted on Linux: links to libburn-suitable device files,
       device files which have the same major and  minor  device  number,  and
       device  files  which  have  the  same  SCSI  address  parameters  (e.g.

   Emulated drives:
       Option  --allow_emulated_drives  enables  addressing  of  pseudo-drives
       which get emulated on top of filesystem objects. Regular data files and
       block devices result in pseudo-drives which behave much  like  DVD-RAM.
       If  the given address does not exist yet but its directory exists, then
       it gets created as regular  file.   Other  file  types  like  character
       devices  or  pipes result in pseudo-drives which behave much like blank
       DVD-R.  The target file address is given after prefix "stdio:".
       E.g.: dev=stdio:/tmp/my_pseudo_drive
       Addresses of the form "stdio:/dev/fd/<number>" are treated special. The
       number  is  read  literally  and  used  as  open  file descriptor. With
       dev="stdio:/dev/fd/1" the normal standard  output  of  the  program  is
       redirected  to  stderr and the stream data of a burn run will appear on
       Not good for terminals ! Redirect it.
       Pseudo-drives allow -dummy. Their reply with --tell_media_space can  be
       utopic.   -dummy  burn  runs  touch the file but do not modify its data
       Note:  --allow_emulated_drives  is  restricted  to  stdio:/dev/null  if
       cdrskin  is run by the superuser or if it has changed user identity via
       the setuid bit of its access permissions. The ban for the superuser can
       be lifted by a skillfully created file. See section FILES below.


       --help Show non-cdrecord compatible options.

       -help  Show cdrecord compatible options.
              Note  that some of the help texts are quite wrong - for cdrecord
              as well as for cdrskin (e.g. -format, blank=, -load). They  are,
              nevertheless, traditional indicators for the availability of the
              listed options. Some  frontend  programs  make  decisions  after
              reading them.

              Print cdrskin id line, compatibility lure line, libburn version,
              cdrskin  version,  version  timestamp,   build   timestamp   (if
              available), and then exit.

       Alphabetical  list  of options which are intended to be compatible with
       original cdrecord by Joerg Schilling:

       -atip  Retrieve some info about  media  state.  With  CD-RW  print  "Is
              erasable".   With  DVD media print "book type:" and a media type
              text. With BD media print "Mounted Media:" and media type  text.

       -audio Announces  that the subsequent tracks are to be burned as audio.
              The source is supposed to be uncompressed headerless PCM,  44100
              Hz, 16 bit, stereo. For little-endian byte order (which is usual
              on PCs) use option -swab. Unless  marked  explicitly  by  option
              -data,  input  files with suffix ".wav" are examined wether they
              have a header in MS-WAVE format confirming those parameters  and
              eventually  raw  audio  data  get  extracted and burned as audio
              track. Same is done for suffix ".au" and SUN Audio.
              Option -audio may be used only with CD media and not with DVD or

              Blank  a CD-RW, DVD-RW, or format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
              This is combinable with burning in the same run of cdrskin.  The
              type given with blank= selects the particular behavior:

                     Try  to make the media ready for writing from scratch. If
                     it needs formatting, then format it. If it is not  blank,
                     then try to apply blank=fast.  It is a reason to abort if
                     the media cannot assume thoroughly writeable state,  e.g.
                     if it is non-blank write-once.
                     This  leaves  unformatted  DVD-RW  in  unformatted  blank
                     state. To format DVD-RW  use  blank=format_overwriteable.
                     Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
                     (Note:   blank=as_needed  is  not  an  original  cdrecord

              The following blank  types  are  specific  to  particular  media
              familes. Use them if special features are desired.

              all    Blank an entire CD-RW or  an  unformatted  DVD-RW.   (See
                     also --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)

              fast   Minimally  blank  an entire CD-RW or blank an unformatted
                     DVD-RW.      (See      also      --prodvd_cli_compatible,

                     Like  blank=all  but with the additional ability to blank
                     overwriteable DVD-RW.  This will destroy their formatting
                     and   make   them   sequentially   recordable.    Another
                     peculiarity is the ability to blank  media  which  appear
                     already blank.  This is similar to option -force but does
                     not try to blank media other than recognizable CD-RW  and
                     (Note:   blank=deformat_*   are   not  original  cdrecord

                     Like blank=deformat_sequential but blanking  DVD-RW  only
                     minimally.   This  is  faster  than full blanking but may
                     yield media incapable of Incremental Streaming (-tao).

                     Format a media if it is not formatted yet, and if cdrskin
                     supports formatting for the media type, and if formatting
                     will  not  happen  automatically  during   write.    This
                     currently  applies to unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE,
                     and blank unformatted BD-R.  Eventually  the  appropriate
                     default  formatting  is chosen.  If other media or states
                     are encountered then nothing happens.
                     The following formatting types are  more  specialized  to
                     particular media families.

                     Format  a  DVD-RW  to  "Restricted  Overwrite".  The user
                     should bring some patience.
                     (Note: blank=format_* are not original cdrecord options.)

                     Like   format_overwrite   without   creating  a  128  MiB
                     trailblazer session.  Leads to "intermediate" state which
                     only  allows  sequential  write beginning from address 0.
                     The "intermediate" state ends after the first session  of
                     writing data.

                     For  DVD-RW this is like format_overwrite but claims full
                     media size rather than just 128  MiB.   Most  traditional
                     formatting  is  attempted.  No  data  get  written.  Much
                     patience is required.
                     This option treats already formatted media  even  if  not
                     option -force is given.
                     For DVD+RW this is the only supported explicit formatting
                     type. It provides complete "de-icing" so no reader  slips
                     on unwritten data areas.

                     Format  DVD-RAM  or  BD  to reserve the default amount of
                     spare blocks for defect management.
                     The following format_defectmgt_*  allow  to  submit  user
                     wishes  which  nevertheless  have  to  match  one  of the
                     available formats. These formats are offered by the drive
                     after examining the media.

                     Disable the usual media quality certification in order to
                     save time and format to default size.  The  certification
                     setting   persists  even  if  subsequent  blank=  options
                     override the size of the format selection.
                     Whether formatting without certification  works  properly
                     depends  much  on the drive. One should check the "Format
                     status:" from --list_formats afterwards.

                     Re-enable  the  usual  media  quality  certification  and
                     format   to  default  size.   The  certification  setting
                     persists like with format_defectmgt_cert_off.
                     Whether there happens certification at all  depends  much
                     on  the  media  state  and  the  actually selected format

                     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a maximum number of spare

                     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a minimum number of spare
                     blocks.    It    might    be    necessary    to    format
                     format_defectmgt_none  first  in order to get offered the
                     most minmal spare blocks sizes for  format_defectmgt_min.

                     Format  DVD-RAM or BD-RE to the largest available payload
                     in the hope to disable defect management at all. This may
                     or  may  not have a speed increasing effect.  Unformatted
                     blank BD-R will be left unformatted.

                     Format    DVD-RAM    or    BD.     The     text     after
                     "format_defectmgt_payload_"  gives  a  number  of  bytes,
                     eventually with  suffixes  "s",  "k",  "m".  The  largest
                     number  of  spare  blocks  will be chosen which allows at
                     least the given payload size.

                     Format DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or BD.  The  number  after
                     "format_by_index_"  is  used  as  index  to  the  list of
                     available format descriptors. This list can  be  obtained
                     by option --list_formats.  The numbers after text "Format
                     idx" are the  ones  to  be  used  with  format_by_index_.
                     Format  descriptor  lists  are volatile. Do neither eject
                     nor write the media between the run of --list_formats and
                     the  run  of blank=format_by_index_ or else you may get a
                     different format than desired.

              help   Print this list of blanking types.

              Retrieve some info about the  addressed  drive  and  then  exit.
              Exits  with  non-zero  value  if  the  drive cannot be found and

       -dao   Alias for option -sao. Write CD in Session at Once mode or  DVD-
              R[W] in Disc-at-once mode.

       -data  Subsequent  tracks  are  data tracks. This option is default and
              only needed to mark the end of the range of an  eventual  option
              -audio or -xa1.
              Options -mode2, -xa, and -xa2 get mapped to -data, not using the
              desired CD sector formats  and  thus  not  taking  advantage  of
              eventual higher payload.  -xa1 Subsequent tracks are data tracks
              with input suitable for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form  1.  This  differs
              from  -data  input  by  8  additional  header  bytes  per block.
              cdrskin will not write CD-ROM XA but  rather  strip  the  header
              bytes and write as -data tracks.

              Set  the  address  of  the  drive to use. Valid are at least the
              addresses listed with option --devices, X,Y,Z  addresses  listed
              with  option  -scanbus,  ATA:X,Y,Z addresses listed with options
              dev=ATA -scanbus, and volatile libburn drive numbers  (numbering
              starts  at  "0").  Other device file addresses which lead to the
              same drive might work too.
              If no dev= is given, volatile address "dev=0" is  assumed.  That
              is  the  first  drive  found  being available. Better avoid this
              ambiguity on systems with more than one drive.
              The special target "help" lists hints about available addressing
              formats.   Be aware that deprecated option --old_pseudo_scsi_adr
              may change the meaning of Bus,Target,Lun addresses.

              Set "driveropts=noburnfree"  to  disable  the  drive's  eventual
              protection mechanism against temporary lack of source data (i.e.
              buffer underrun).  A drive that announces no  such  capabilities
              will  not  get them enabled anyway, even if attempted explicitly
              via "driveropts=burnfree".

       -dummy Try to perform the drive operations without  actually  affecting
              the  inserted  media.  There  is no warranty that this will work
              with a particular combination of drive, media, and  write  mode.
              Blanking  is  prevented  reliably,  though.  To avoid inadverted
              real burning, -dummy refuses burn runs on anything but  CD-R[W],
              DVD-R[W], or emulated stdio-drives.

       -eject Eject the disc after work is done.

       -force Assume  that the user knows better in situations when cdrskin or
              libburn are insecure about drive or media state.  This  includes
              the  attempt  to  blank media which are classified as unknown or
              unsuitable, and the attempt to use  write  modes  which  libburn
              believes they are not supported by the drive.
              Another  application  is to enforce blanking or re-formatting of
              media which appear to be in the desired blank  or  format  state
              This  option  enables  a  burn  run  with  option -dummy even if
              libburn believes that drive and  media  will  not  simulate  the
              write mode but will write for real.
              Caution: Use this only when in urgent need.

              Same  as  blank=format_overwrite_full  -force  but restricted to

              Set the fifo size  to  the  given  value.  The  value  may  have
              appended letters which multiply the preceding number:
              "k"  or  "K"  = 1024 , "m" or "M" = 1024k , "g" or "G" = 1024m ,
              "s" or "S" = 2048
              Set size to 0 in order to disable the fifo (default is "4m").
              The fifo buffers an eventual temporary surplus of  track  source
              data  in  order to provide the drive with a steady stream during
              times of temporary lack of track source supply.  The larger  the
              fifo,   the   longer  periods  of  poor  source  supply  can  be
              compensated.  But a large fifo needs substantial time to fill up
              if not curbed via option fifo_start_at=size.

              Set the grace time before starting to write. (Default is 0)

       -immed Equivalent to:
              The  name  of  this  cdrecord  option stems from the "Immed" bit
              which can make some long running drive commands asynchronous and
              thus eases the load on some wiring hardware types. Regardless of
              option -immed, cdrskin uses asynchronous commands where possible
              and appropriate.

       -inq   Print the identification of the drive and then exit.

              The  next  track  following  this  option will try to obtain its
              source size from the header information out  of  the  first  few
              blocks of the source data.  If these blocks indicate an ISO-9660
              filesystem then  its  declared  size  will  be  used  under  the
              assumption that it is a single session filesystem.
              If not, then the burn run will be aborted.
              The  range  of -isosize is exactly one track. Further tracks may
              be preceded by further -isosize options,  though.  At  least  15
              blocks  of  padding will be added to each -isosize track. But be
              advised to rather use padsize=300k.
              This option can be performed on track sources which are  regular
              files  or  block  devices. For the first track of the session it
              can be performed on any type of source if there is a fifo of  at
              least 64 kiB. See option fs= .

       -load  Load  the  media  and exit. Exit value is 0 if any kind of media
              was found, non zero else. Note: Option -eject  will  unload  the
              media even if -load is given.

       -lock  Like option -load but leave the drive's eject button disabled if
              there is any media found and not option -eject is given.
              Use program "eject" or cdrskin -eject to get the tray out of the
              drive.   Runs  of  programs  like  cdrecord,  growisofs,  wodim,
              cdrskin will not be hampered and  normally  enable  the  drive's
              eject button when they are done.

              Equivalent to:
              Percentage is permissible between 25 and 95.

       -minfo Print  information  about  the loaded media. This includes media
              type, writability state, and a quite readable table of  content.

              Run  option -msinfo and copy the result line into the file given
              by path.  Unlike -msinfo  this  option  does  not  redirect  all
              normal  output away from standard output. But it may be combined
              with -msinfo to achieve this.
              Note: msifile=path is actually an option of  wodim  and  not  of

              Retrieve multi-session info for preparing a follow-up session by
              option -C of  programs  mkisofs,  genisoimage,  or  xorriso  -as
              mkisofs.    Print   result  to  standard  output.   This  option
              redirects to stderr all message output except the one of  option
              --tell_media_space  and its own result string, which consists of
              two numbers.  The result string shall be  used  as  argument  of
              option -C with said programs.  It gives the start address of the
              most recent session and the predicted start address of the  next
              session  to  be appended. The string is empty if the most recent
              session was not written with option -multi.
              To have a chance for working on overwriteable media, this option
              has to be accompanied by option --grow_overwriteable_iso.

       -multi This  option  keeps  CD,  unformatted  DVD-R[W],  DVD+R, or BD-R
              appendable after the current session has been written.   Without
              it  the  disc  gets  closed  and  may not be written any more  -
              unless it is a -RW and gets blanked which  causes  loss  of  its
              The  following sessions can only be written in -tao mode. -multi
              is   prohibited   with   DVD-R[W]   DAO   write   mode.   Option
              --prodvd_cli_compatible  eventually  makes  -multi tolerable but
              cannot make it work.
              In order to have all filesystem content accessible, the eventual
              ISO-9660  filesystem of a follow-up session needs to be prepared
              in a special way by the filesystem  formatter  program.  mkisofs
              and genisoimage expect particular info about the situation which
              can be retrieved by cdrskin option -msinfo.
              To retrieve an archive  file  which  was  written  as  follow-up
              session, you may use option -toc to learn about the "lba" of the
              desired track number.  This lba is the address of the 2048  byte
              block where the archive begins.
              With  overwriteable  DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end
              of the session.  So when adding a new session this end has to be
              determined   from   the   payload.    Currently   only  ISO-9660
              filesystems   can    be    used    that    way.    See    option
              --grow_overwriteable_iso for lifting the ban on -multi.
              Note:  -multi  might  make  DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM

       -nopad Do not add trailing zeros  to  the  data  stream.  Nevertheless,
              since  there seems to be no use for audio tracks with incomplete
              last sector, this option applies only to data tracks.  There  it
              is default.

       -pad   Add  30  kiB  of trailing zeros to each data track. (This is not
              sufficient to avoid problems with various CD-ROM read  drivers.)

              Add  the  given amount of trailing zeros to the next data track.
              This option gets reset to padsize=0 after  that  next  track  is
              written.  It  may  be  set again before the next track argument.
              About size specifiers, see option fs=.

       -sao   Write CD in Session At Once mode or sequential DVD-R[W] in Disc-
              at-once (DAO) mode.
              With  CD  this mode is able to put several audio tracks on media
              without producing audible gaps between them.
              With DVD-R[W] this mode can  only  write  a  single  track.   No
              -multi is allowed with DVD-R[W] -sao.
              -sao is permissible with overwriteable DVD, or DVD+R[/DL], or BD
              but actually only imposes restrictions without  providing  known
              -sao  can only be used for tracks of fixely predicted size. This
              implies that track arguments which depict stdin or  named  pipes
              need   to   be   preceded   by   option   tsize=  or  by  option
              -sao cannot be used on appendable media.

              Scan the system for drives. On Linux the drives at  /dev/s*  and
              at  /dev/hd* are to be scanned by two separate runs. One without
              dev= for /dev/s* and one  with  dev=ATA  for  /dev/hd*  devices.
              (Option --drives lists all available drives in a single run.)
              Drives  which  are  busy  or which offer no rw-permission to the
              user of cdrskin are not listed. Busy drives get reported in form
              of warning messages.
              The useful fields in a result line are:
              Bus,Target,Lun Number) 'Vendor' 'Mode' 'Revision'

              Set  speed  of  drive.  With  data CD, 1x speed corresponds to a
              throughput of 150,000 bytes/second. With  DVD,  1x  =  1,385,000
              bytes/second.   With  BD 1x = 4,495,625 bytes/second.  It is not
              an error to set a speed higher than is suitable  for  drive  and
              media.  One  should stay within a realistic speed range, though.
              Special speed settings are:
              0 = minimal speed , -1 = maximal speed (default), text  "any"  =
              like -1.

       -swab  Announce  that the raw audio data source of subsequent tracks is
              byte swapped versus the expectations of cdrecord. This option is
              suitable  for audio where the least significant byte of a 16 bit
              word is first (little-endian, Intel).  Most raw audio data on PC
              systems  are  available  in  this byte order.  Less guesswork is
              needed if track sources are in format MS-WAVE  in  a  file  with
              suffix ".wav".

       -tao   Write  CD  in  Track  At Once (TAO) mode, sequential DVD-R[W] in
              Incremental Streaming mode, or  DVD+R[/DL]  without  traditional
              -sao   restrictions.    This  mode  also  applies  pro-forma  to
              overwriteable media
              Mode -tao can be used with track sources of unpredictable  size,
              like  standard  input  or  named pipes. It is also the only mode
              that can be used for writing to appendable media  which  already
              hold  data.  With unformatted DVD-R[W] it is the only mode which
              allows -multi.

       -toc   Print the table of content  (TOC)  which  describes  the  tracks
              recorded  on  disc.   The  output  contains all info from option
              -atip plus lines which begin with "track:",  the  track  number,
              the  word  "lba:"  and a number which gives the start address of
              the track. Addresses are counted in CD sectors which with SAO or
              TAO data tracks hold 2048 bytes each.

              Example. Retrieve an afio archive from track number 2:
                     lba=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/cdrom -toc 2>&1 | \
                     grep '^track:[ ]*[ 0-9][0-9]' | \
                     tail +"$tracknumber" | head -1 | \
                     awk '{ print $4}' )
                     dd if=/dev/cdrom bs=2048 skip="$lba" | \
                     afio -t - | less

              Announces  the  exact  size  of  the  next track source. This is
              necessary with any write mode  other  than  -tao  if  the  track
              source is not a regular disk file, but e.g. "-" (standard input)
              or a named pipe.  About size specifiers, see option fs=.
              If the track source does not deliver  the  predicted  amount  of
              bytes,  the remainder of the track is padded with zeros. This is
              not considered an error.  If on the other hand the track  source
              delivers  more  than the announced bytes then the track on media
              gets truncated to the predicted size and cdrskin exits with non-
              zero value.

       -v     Increment  verbose  level  by one. Startlevel is 0 with only few
              messages.  Level 1 prints  progress  report  with  long  running
              operations  and  also causes some extra lines to be put out with
              info retrieval options.   Level  2  additionally  reports  about
              option settings derived from arguments or startup files. Level 3
              is for debugging and useful mainly in conjunction with  somebody
              who had a look into the program sourcecode.

       -V     Enable  logging  of  SCSI commands to stderr. This allows expert
              examination of the interaction between libburn  and  the  drive.
              The commands are specified in SCSI-3 standards SPC, SBC, MMC.

       -waiti Wait  until  input  data  is available at stdin or EOF occurs at
              stdin.  Only then begin to access any drives.
              One should use this if cdrskin is working at the end of  a  pipe
              where  the  feeder process reads from the drive before it starts
              writing its output into cdrskin. Example:
              mkisofs ... -C 0,12800 -M /dev/sr0 | \
              cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 ... -waiti -
              This option works even if stdin is not among the track  sources.
              If  no process is piping in, then the Enter key of your terminal
              will act as trigger for cdrskin. Note that this input line  will
              not  be  consumed  by  cdrskin  if  stdin is not among the track
              sources. It will end up as shell command, usually.

       Alphabetical list of options which are genuine to cdrskin and  intended
       for normal use:

              Curb  explicitly  given  speed=  values  to the maximum which is
              announced by the drive for the loaded media. By default, such an
              adjustment  is  only  made  with  pseudo-speeds 0 and -1 whereas
              speed settings > 0 are sent unchanged to the  drive  which  will
              then choose an appropriate speed on its own.

              Enable  drive addresses of the form dev=stdio:<path>. See above,
              paragraph "Drive preparation and addressing".

              Disable the loud  warning  about  insecure  discrepance  between
              login  user  and  effective  user which indicates application of
              chmod u+s to the program binary.  One should not do  this  chmod
              u+s , but it is an old cdrecord tradition.

              Allow   source_addresses   to   begin  with  "-"  (plus  further
              characters) or to contain a  "="  character.   By  default  such
              arguments are seen as misspelled options. It is nevertheless not
              possible   to   use   one   of   the   options    listed    with

              Abort  if  the  write  address given with this option is not the
              same as predicted immediately before the write  session  starts.
              This  option  can ensure that a start address which was presumed
              by a formatter like mkisofs -C is really used by the  drive  for
              writing.  assert_write_lba=0 effectively demands blank media and
              excludes appendables.
              Block numbering is peculiar: If the last character of the option
              string  is a letter [a-zA-Z] then the usual unit scaling by "s",
              "k", "m", etc. applies and the result is divided by  2048.  Else
              the  number  value  of the string is taken as plain block number
              with block size 2048 byte.  (E.g  ...=1000  or  ...=1000s  means
              block 1000, ...=1m means block 512, ...=4096b means block number

              Exit with a nonzero value if no drive can be found during a  bus

              List  the  device file addresses of all accessible CD drives. In
              order to get listed, a drive has to offer rw-permission for  the
              cdrskin  user  and  it  may not be busy. The superuser should be
              able to see all idle drives listed and busy drives  reported  as
              "SORRY" messages.
              Each  available  drive  gets  listed  by  a  line containing the
              following fields:
              Number dev='Devicefile' rw-Permissions : 'Vendor' 'Model'
              Number and Devicefile can both be used  with  option  dev=,  but
              number is volatile (numbering changes if drives become busy).

              Do   not  write  a  session  with  tracks  but  rather  make  an
              appropriate  number  of  direct   write   operations   with   no
              preparations.  Flushing  the  drive  buffer  will  be  the  only
              finalization. It  is  advised  to  eject  the  media  afterwards
              because  the  write  operations  circumvent the usual system i/o
              with its caches and buffers. By ejecting, those  invalid  memory
              copies get surely discarded.
              Only  few  media can be written this way: DVD-RAM, BD-RE, RVD+RW
              and overwriteable DVD-RW. Writing is restricted to  the  already
              formatted area of the media.
              Writing starts at byte 0 of the media or at the address given by
              option write_start_address= .  Only the first  track  source  is
              used  as  input  for  the  write  operations.  The fifo (fs=) is
              Parameter size controls the amount of data to be written. Size 0
              means  that the track source shall be used up until EOF. In this
              case, the last write transaction gets padded up to the necessary
              size  by zeros. Size -1 revokes direct writing and switches back
              to normal session oriented writing.
              Both, write_start_address and direct_write_amount size  must  be
              aligned to a media dependend transaction size. With DVD-RAM, BD-
              RE, DVD+RW this is 2k, with overwriteable DVD-RW it is 32k.

              Linux specific: Set the number of bytes to be  transmitted  with
              each write operation to DVD or BD media. Tracks get padded up to
              the next multiple of this write size. A  number  of  64  KB  may
              improve throughput with bus systems which show latency problems.
              The default depends on media type, option stream_recording=, and
              on compile time options.

              Set  a command name to be executed if cdrskin encounters a known
              cdrecord option which it does not yet support.  If  a  non-empty
              command  is  given  with  fallback_program=, and if no essential
              options are given which are specific to  cdrskin,  then  cdrskin
              will delegate the job to said command.
              The  natural  commands to be given are cdrecord or wodim but one
              may well submit the address of an own program.
              The fallback program will get all arguments of cdrskin which  do
              not  match  the  shell  patterns --?* or *_*=* . This eventually
              suppresses path names of track sources  which  happen  to  match
              those  patterns.  The  options  from  the  startup files are not
              handed to the fallback program.
              Fallback program execution is disabled if cdrskin is run  setuid
              and  not option --allow_setuid is given. In general, the drive's
              device files and the involved programs should be set up so  that
              each program runs under its advised conditions. (E.g. cdrskin as
              member of group floppy, cdrecord setuid root.)
              Two alias names for cdrskin are predefined with default fallback
              unicord implies fallback_program=cdrecord
              codim implies fallback_program=wodim

              Do not wait for full fifo but start burning as soon as the given
              number of bytes is read. This option may be helpful to bring the
              average  throughput near to the maximum throughput of a drive. A
              large fs= and a small fifo_start_at= combine a quick burn  start
              and  a  large savings buffer to compensate for temporary lack of
              source  data.  At  the  beginning  of  burning,   the   software
              protection  against  buffer  underun  is  as weak as the size of
              fifo_start_at= . So it is best  if  the  drive  offers  hardware
              protection    which    is    enabled    automatically   if   not
              driveropts=noburnfree is given.

              Enable emulation of multi-session writing on overwriteable media
              which  contain an ISO-9660 filesystem. This emulation is learned
              from growisofs -M but adapted to the usage model of
              cdrskin -msinfo
              mkisofs -C -M | cdrskin -waiti [-multi] -
              --grow_overwriteable_iso does not hamper the use of true  multi-
              session  media.   I.e.  it  is  possible to use the same cdrskin
              options with both kinds of media and to achieve similar  results
              if  ISO-9660  filesystem  images are to be written.  This option
              implies option -isosize and therefore  demands  that  the  track
              source is a ISO-9660 filesystem image.
              With overwriteable media and no option blank=fast|all present it
              expands an eventual ISO-9660 filesystem on media. It is  assumed
              that  this  image's  inner size description points to the end of
              the valuable data.   Overwriteable  media  with  a  recognizable
              ISO-9660  size  will  be  regarded  as appendable rather than as
              blank. I.e. options -msinfo  and  -toc  will  work.   -toc  will
              always show a single session with its size increasing with every
              added mkisofs image.
              If not overridden by option write_start_address=, the track with
              the  new image will be placed behind the end of the old one. One
              may use option assert_write_lba= to make sure that  media  state
              and mkisofs job do match.
              --grow_overwriteable_iso   causes   option   blank=fast|all   to
              invalidate an eventual ISO-9660 image by altering the first  few
              bytes  of  block  16  on  overwriteable media.  Option -multi is
              tolerated in order not to hamper true multi-session media.
              An equivalent of growisofs -Z for overwriteable media is:
              mkisofs | cdrskin --grow_overwriteable_iso blank=fast [-multi] -
              With  multi-session  DVD, blank=fast will act like dvd+rw-format
              -blank=full .
              growisofs -dvd-compat is roughly equivalent to  cdrskin  without
              option -multi.

              List  the  available format descriptors as reported by the drive
              for the loaded media. Each descriptor line begins  with  "Format
              idx"  and  the  descriptor's  list index, followed by a ":", the
              format type, the number of payload blocks and that  same  number
              converted to MiB.
              The  meaning  of the format types is defined by the MMC standard
              with command FORMAT UNIT. A user will more be interested in  the
              sizes than in the types.

              List  all  ignored  cdrecord  options. The "-" options cannot be
              used as addresses of track sources. No track source address  may
              begin with a text equal to an option which ends by "=". The list
              is ended by an empty line.

              Like option -toc but  marking  each  session  start  by  a  line
              "first: X last: Y" and each session end by "track:lout ...".

              Only if used as first command line argument this option prevents
              reading  and  interpretation  of  eventual  startup  files.  See
              section FILES below.

              Activates  behavior modifications with some DVD situations which
              bring cdrskin nearer to the behavior of cdrecord-ProDVD:
              Option -multi with unsuitable media is not an error  but  simply
              has no effect.
              Options  blank=fast  and blank=all deformat overwriteable DVD-RW
              Option blank=fast does indeed minmal blanking with DVD-RW.  This
              may  yield  media  which  can  only  do  DAO but not Incremental

              Accept only the last argument  of  the  command  line  as  track
              source address.

              Set  the  number  of bytes after which to force output to drives
              with prefix "stdio:". This forcing keeps the memory  from  being
              clogged with lots of pending data for slow devices. Default "on"
              is the same as "16m".  Forced output can be disabled by "off".

              By setting "on" request that compliance  to  the  desired  speed
              setting  is preferred over management of write errors. With DVD-
              RAM and BD this can bring effective  write  speed  near  to  the
              nominal  write speed of the media.  But it will also disable the
              automatic use of replacement blocks if write  errors  occur.  It
              might as well be disliked or ignored by the drive.
              If  a  number  is given, then error management stays enabled for
              all byte addresses below that number. Any number  below  16s  is
              the same as "off".

              Set  an exact fixed size for the next track to be in effect only
              if the track source cannot deliver  a  size  prediction  and  no
              tsize=  was  specified  and  an  exact  track size prediction is
              demanded by the write mode.
              This was the fallback from bad old times when cdrskin was unable
              to  burn in mode -tao . It came back with minimally blanked DVD-
              RW which  allow  no  Incremental  Streaming  (-tao)  resp.  with
              explicitly   selected   write   mode   -sao   for  best  DVD-ROM
              If the track source delivers less bytes than announced then  the
              missing ones will be filled with zeros.

              Prepare  a  recording  session,  do  not  perform  it but rather
              inquire the maximum number of 2048 byte data blocks which may be
              written  in  the current state of media with the prepared setup.
              So this  option  disables  recording  of  data.  It  does  allow
              blanking, though, and will measure space afterwards.
              It  is  not mandatory to give track sources but their nature may
              influence the available capacity. So for most realistic  results
              one may set up the full burn session and add --tell_media_space.
              But if one has to expect a cdrskin version  prior  to  0.3.3  no
              track   source  should  be  given  in  order  not  to  start  an
              involuntary burn session.  In this case set  at  least  -sao  or
              -tao explicitly.
              The  result gets printed to standard output. It is 0 or empty if
              no writing is possible with  the  given  options.   This  option
              redirects  to  stderr  all  message output except its own result
              string and eventual output of -msinfo.

              Set the address on media where to start writing the track.  With
              DVD+RW,  DVD-RAM  or  BD-RE byte_offset must be aligned to 2 kiB
              blocks, but better is 32 kiB.  With DVD-RW 32 kiB  alignment  is
              Other media are not suitable for this option yet.

       Alphabetical  list  of options which are only intended for very special
       situations and not for  normal use:

              Establish default signal handling not to leave a drive  in  busy
              state  but rather to shut it down and to wait until it has ended
              the final operations.  This option is only needed  for  revoking
              eventual --ignore_signals or --no_abort_handler.

              Enable the use of media profiles which have been implemented but
              not yet tested. Currently this applies to :
              Profile 0015h , DVD-R/DL Sequential (will not allow -multi).
              If you really test such media, then please report the outcome on

              Set drive address alias. This was necessary before cdrskin-0.2.4
              to manually translate cdrecord addresses into cdrskin addresses.
              <sep>  is  a single character which may not occur in the address
              string <from>. <from> is an address as expected to be  given  by
              the user via option dev=. <to> is the address to be used instead
              whenever <from> is given.  More than one translation instruction
              can be given in one cdrskin run.
              E.g.:                        dev_translation=+ATA:1,0,0+/dev/sr1

              Linux specific: Abort process if a busy drive is encountered.

              Linux specific: Try to wait for a busy  drive  to  become  free.
              This  is  not  guaranteed  to  work  with all drivers. Some need
              nonblocking i/o.

              Linux specific: Try to get exclusive lock on drive  device  file
              via fcntl(2).

              Linux      specific:     Combine     --drive_not_f_setlk     and

              Linux specific: Do not try to get exclusive lock on drive device
              file via fcntl(2).

              Linux  specific:  Do  not  ask  the  operating system to prevent
              opening busy drives.  Wether this  leads  to  senseful  behavior
              depends on operating system and kernel.

              Linux  specific:  Select a SCSI device file family to be scanned
              for  by  options  --devices  and  -scanbus.   Normally  this  is
              /dev/sgN on kernel versions < 2.6 and /dev/srN on kernels >= 2.6
              . This option allows to  explicitly  override  that  default  in
              order  to  meet  other programs at a common device file for each
              drive.  On kernel 2.4 families sr and scd will find no drives.
              Device file family /dev/hdX on kernel >= 2.6 is not affected  by
              this setting.

              Linux   specific:   Try  to  exclusively  reserve  device  files
              /dev/srN, /dev/scdM, /dev/sgK of drives.  This would be  helpful
              to   protect   against   collisions   with   program  growisofs.
              Regrettably on Linux kernel 2.4  with  ide-scsi  emulation  this
              seems  not  to  work.  Wether  it becomes helpful with new Linux
              systems has to be evaluated.

              Disable fifo despite any fs=.

              Use a separate fifo for each track.

              Expand the last track of the session  to  occupy  all  remaining
              free space on the media.
              This  option  overrides option -multi. It will not fill up media
              if option -sao is given with CD media.
              Caution: With multi-session media  this  option  might  increase
              readatibility  on DVD-ROM drives but with some DVD recorders and
              media types it might also fail to produce readable media at all.
              "Your mileage may vary".
              You  can  expect  the best possible read compatibility if you do
              not use -multi at all.

              Open the addressed drive, wait  the  given  number  of  seconds,
              release  the drive, and do normal work as indicated by the other
              options used. This option helps to explore the program  behavior
              when  faced  with  busy drives. Just start a second cdrskin with
              option --devices while grab_drive_and_wait= is still active.

              Try to ignore any signals rather than to abort the program. This
              is  not  a  very good idea. You might end up waiting a very long
              time for cdrskin to finish.

              Mode 1 keeps the program from trying  to  write  to  the  burner
              drive  while  its  buffer is in danger to be filled by more than
              max_percent. If this filling is exceeded then the  program  will
              wait until the filling is at most min_percent.
              This  can ease the load on operating system and drive controller
              and thus help with achieving better input bandwidth if disk  and
              burner  are  not  on independent controllers (like hda and hdb).
              Unsufficient input  bandwidth  is  indicated  by  output  "(fifo
              xy%)"  of  option  -v  if  xy  is  lower  than 90 for some time.
              modesty_on_drive= might hamper output bandwidth and cause buffer
              To  have max_percent larger than the burner's best actual buffer
              fill has  the  same  effect  as  min_percent==max_percent.  Some
              burners do not use their full buffer with all media types. Watch
              output "[buf xy%]" of option -v to  get  an  impression  of  the
              actual  buffer usage. Some burners are not suitable because they
              report buffer fill with granularity too large in size or time.
              Mode 0 disables  this  feature.  Mode  -1  keeps  it  unchanged.
              Default is:
              Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to 100.

              On  signals exit even if the drive is in busy state. This is not
              a very good idea. You might end  up  with  a  stuck  drive  that
              refuses to hand out the media.

              Refuse  to  blank  appendable CD-RW or DVD-RW. This is a feature
              that was once builtin with libburn. No information available for
              what use case it was needed.

              Do only literal translations of dev=. This prevents cdrskin from
              test-opening device files in order to find one that matches  the
              given dev= specifier.
              Partly Linux specific: Such opening is needed for Bus,Target,Lun
              addresses unless option --old_pseudo_scsi_adr is  given.  It  is
              also  needed  to  resolve  device  file  addresses which are not
              listed with cdrskin --devices but nevertheless point to a usable
              drive.  (Like /dev/sg0 using the same SCSI address as /dev/sr0.)

              Linux specific: Use and report literal Bus,Target,Lun  addresses
              rather  than  real SCSI and pseudo ATA addresses. This method is
              outdated  and  was  never  compatible  with  original  cdrecord.
              --xa1-ignore  Silently  interpret option -xa1 as -data. This may
              be necessary if a frontent does not prepare -xa1  block  headers
              but insists in using option -xa1.


   Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
       cdrskin -scanbus
       cdrskin dev=ATA -scanbus
       cdrskin --devices

   Get info about a particular drive or loaded media:
       cdrskin dev=0,1,0 -checkdrive
       cdrskin dev=ATA:1,0,0 -v -atip
       cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -minfo

   Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use, DVD-RAM or BD-RE for first use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sg1 blank=as_needed -eject

   Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=format_overwrite

   De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=deformat_sequential

   Write ISO-9660 filesystem image as only one to blank or formatted media:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/hdc speed=12 fs=8m \
       blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k my_image.iso

   Write  compressed  afio  archive  on-the-fly  (not  possible with minimally
       blanked DVD-RW):
       find . | afio -oZ - | \
       cdrskin -v dev=0,1,0 fs=32m speed=8 \
       blank=as_needed padsize=300k -

   Write multi-session to the same CD, DVD-R[W], DVD+R[/DL], or BD-R:
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 1.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 2.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 3.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k 4.iso

   Get multi-session info for option -C of program mkisofs:
       c_values=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -msinfo 2>/dev/null)
       mkisofs ... -C "$c_values" ...

   Inquire free space on media for a -multi run:
       x=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -multi \
       --tell_media_space 2>/dev/null)
       echo "Available: $x blocks of 2048 data bytes"

   Write audio tracks to CD:
       cdrskin -v dev=ATA:1,0,0 speed=48 -sao \
       track1.wav -audio -swab track3.raw


   Startup files:
       If not --no_rc is given as the first argument then cdrskin attempts  on
       startup to read the arguments from the following files:


       The  files  are  read  in the sequence given above, but none of them is
       required for cdrskin  to  function  properly.  Each  readable  line  is
       treated as one single argument. No extra blanks.  A first character '#'
       marks a comment, empty lines are ignored.
       Example content of a startup file:
       # This is the default device
       # Some more options

   Disabling superuser safety precautions:
       The superuser is normally banned from using any  other  emulated  drive
       but /dev/null. This ban can be lifted by the existence of file


       where  the  directory must be owned by the superuser and must not offer
       w-permissions for group or others.
       Warning: Superusers must take care not to spoil their hard disk via its
       raw block device (like stdio:/dev/hda or stdio:/dev/sd0).


       Formatting data track sources for cdrskin:
              mkisofs(8), genisoimage(8), xorriso(1), afio(1), star(1)

       Other CD/DVD/BD burn programs:
              cdrecord(1), wodim(1), xorriso(1)

       For DVD/BD burning (also tutor of libburn's DVD/BD capabilities):


       cdrskin was written by Thomas Schmitt <>.

       This  manual page was started by George Danchev <> and
       is now maintained by Thomas Schmitt.

                                 Feb 29, 2010