Man Linux: Main Page and Category List


       cdrdao - reads and writes CDs in disc-at-once mode


       cdrdao   {show-toc|read-toc|read-cd|read-cddb|show-data|read-test|disk-
       info|msinfo|unlock|simulate|write|copy|blank}     [--device     device]
       [--source-device  device] [--driver driver-id] [--source-driver driver-
       id]   [--simulate]   [--speed   writing-speed]   [--blank-mode    mode]
       [--datafile file] [--read-raw] [--read-subchan [--no-mode2-mixed] mode]
       [--tao-source]    [--tao-source-adjust    link-blocks]     [--fast-toc]
       [--buffers  buffer-count]  [--multi]  [--overburn]  [--eject]  [--swap]
       [--session]   [--force]   [--reload]    [--keepimage]    [--on-the-fly]
       [--paranoia-mode   mode]   [--with-cddb]  [--cddb-servers  server-list]
       [--cddb-timeout   timeout]   [--cddb-directory   directory]   [--tmpdir
       directory] [--keep] [--save] [-n] [-v verbose-level] toc-file


       cdrdao  creates  audio and data CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO) mode driven
       by a description file called toc-file.  In DAO mode it is  possible  to
       create  non  standard  track  pre-gaps  that  have other lengths than 2
       seconds and contain nonzero audio data. This is for example  useful  to
       divide live recordings into tracks where 2 second gaps would be kind of

       Instead of a  toc-file  a  cue  file  (used  by  a  famous  DOS/Windows
       mastering  tool)  may  be  used.  See  the  CUE  FILES section for more


       The first argument must be one of the following commands:

              Print out a summary about what will be written to the CD-R.

              Analyze each track of the inserted CD and create a toc-file that
              can  be  used to make a more or less exact copy of the CD.  This
              command does not read out the audio or data tracks, use  read-cd
              for this purpose.

              You  can specify a filename for the data file via the --datafile

              Copies all tracks of the  inserted  CD  to  an  image  file  and
              creates  a  corresponding  toc-file.  The name of the image file
              defaults to "data.bin" if no --datafile option is given.

              Tries to retrieve title and artist data from a CDDB  server  for
              the  CD represented by the given toc-file. The retrieved data is
              added as CD-TEXT data for language 0 to the  toc-file.  Existing
              CD-TEXT data for language 0 will be overwritten.

              Print  out  all  samples that would be written to the CD-R. Each
              line contains the sample number (starting at 0) and the  decimal
              sample  value for the left and right channel. Useful to check if
              the byte order of audio files is correct.

              Check if all data can be read from  the  audio  files  that  are
              defined in the toc-file.  This will also check the communication
              with the slave process that is responsible for writing the audio
              data to the CD-recorder. Mainly used for testing.

              Shows  information  about  the inserted CD-R. If the CD-R has an
              open session it will also  print  the  start  of  the  last  and
              current  session which is used by mkisofs to create an image for
              a second or higher session.

       msinfo Shows information required for creating multi session disks with
              mkisofs. The output is meant for processing by scripts.

       unlock Tries  to  unlock  the  recorder  device after a failed write or
              simulation run. If you cannot eject the CD after  a  cdrdao  run
              try this command.

       blank  Blanks  a  CD-RW. The CD-RW is minimally blanked by default. Use
              option --blank-mode to select another blanking mode.   Sometimes
              the  blanking  speed  must  be manually reduced for a successful
              blanking  operation.  Use  option  --speed  to  select   another
              blanking speed.

              Like  write  but  laser  stays  cold. It is a shortcut for write

       write  Write the CD-R according to the specifications in the  toc-file.

       copy   Performs  all  steps  to  copy  a  CD. The device containing the
              source CD must be specified with option --source-device and  the
              recorder  device  with option --device.  If only a single device
              is available the option  --source-device  must  be  omitted  and
              cdrdao  will  prompt  to  insert  the CD-R after an image of the
              source CD was created.

              The image file with name "cddata<pid>.bin" will  be  created  in
              the  current working directory if no --datafile option is given.
              The created image will be removed after it has been written.

              If option --on-the-fly is given no image file is created and the
              data  will  be  directly piped from the reading device to the CD


       --device [prot:]bus,id,lun
              Sets the SCSI address of the CD-recorder in form of a bus/id/lun
              triple,  e.g. ’0,2,0’ for the logical unit 0 of SCSI device with
              ID 2 on bus 0. ATAPI devices  can  be  specified  by  using  the
              prefix  ’ATAPI:’,  e.g.  ’ATAPI:0,0,0’. On some systems a device
              node  may  be  specified  directly,  e.g.  ’/dev/sg0’  on  Linux
              systems.  Linux 2.6 users may also try the newer ATAPI interface
              with the ’ATA:’ prefix.

       --source-device [prot:]bus,id,lun
              Like above but used for the copy command to specify  the  source

       --driver driver-id:option-flags
              Force  usage  of  specified  driver instead of the automatically
              determined driver. Available driver IDs:
              cdd2600, plextor,  plextor-scan,  generic-mmc,  generic-mmc-raw,
              ricoh-mp6200,   yamaha-cdr10x,  teac-cdr55,  sony-cdu920,  sony-
              cdu948, taiyo-yuden, toshiba.
              Specifying an illegal driver ID will give a  list  of  available
              drivers.   Option  flags  may  be used to modify the behavior of
              some drivers. See README for details.

       --source-driver driver-id:option-flags
              Like above  but  used  for  the  device  specified  with  option

       --speed value
              Set the writing speed to value.  Default is the highest possible

       --blank-mode mode
              Sets the blanking mode. Available modes are  full  and  minimal.
              Please  consider that the data of minimally blanked disks may be
              easily recovered. Use the  full  blanking  mode  for  completely
              erasing all data. The default blanking mode is minimal.

       --datafile file
              Used  for read-toc, read-cd and copy.  Set the default data file
              placed in the toc-file by read-toc.  Use "-" to indicate  STDIN.
              For  commands  read-cd  and  copy  it  specifies the name of the
              created image file.

              Only used for commands read-cd and read-toc.  All  data  sectors
              will  be written as 2352 byte blocks including the sector header
              and L-EC data to the image file. The track mode will be  set  to
              MODE1_RAW or MODE2_RAW in the created toc-file.

       --read-subchan mode
              Used by commands read-cd, read-toc and copy.  Specifies the type
              of sub-channel data that is extracted from  the  source  CD  and
              written  to  the  track  image  or copied to the destination CD.
              Mode may be rw for reading  packed  R-W  sub-channel  data  (de-
              interleaved  and error corrected) and rw_raw for reading raw R-W
              sub-channel data (not de-interleaved, not error corrected,  L-EC
              data  included  in  the  track  image).   If  this option is not
              specified no sub-channel data will be extracted.

              Only used  for  commands  read-cd  and  read-toc.   If  we  have
              MODE2_FORM1  or MODE2_FORM2, don’t extract it as MODE2_FORM_MIX.

              This option indicates to the commands read-toc and read-cd  that
              the  source  CD was written in TAO mode. It will be assumed that
              the pre-gap length between all tracks (except between two  audio
              tracks)  is  the  standard  150  blocks  plus the number of link
              blocks (usually 2). The number of link blocks can be  controlled
              with option --tao-source-adjust.

              Use  this option only if read-toc or read-cd give error messages
              in the transition areas between two  tracks.  If  you  use  this
              option  with pressed CDs or CDs written in DAO mode you will get
              wrong results.

       --tao-source-adjust link-blocks
              Specifies the number of link blocks for tracks  written  in  TAO
              mode.  This  option has only an effect if option --tao-source is

              Only used for command read-toc.  This option suppresses the pre-
              gap  length  and index mark extraction which speeds up the read-
              toc process. Standard 2 second pre-gaps (but no  silence!)  will
              be  placed  into  the toc-file. The resulting CD will sound like
              the source CD. Only the CD player’s display will behave slightly
              different in the transition area between two tracks.

              This  option  might help, too, if read-toc fails with your drive

       --buffers buffer-count
              Specifies the number of buffers  that  are  allocated  to  avoid
              buffer  under  runs.   The  minimal buffer count is fixed to 10,
              default is 32 except on FreeBSD systems, on which default is 20.
              Each  buffer  holds  1  second  of  audio  data so that dividing
              buffer-count by the writing speed gives  the  maximum  time  for
              which reading of audio data may be stalled.

              If this option is given the session will not be closed after the
              audio data is successfully written. It  is  possible  to  append
              another session on such disks, e.g. to create a CD-EXTRA.

              By  default cdrdao will not allow to write more data on a medium
              than specified by the current  medium.  This  option  allows  to
              ignore this condition.

              Eject the CD-R after writing or write simulation.

       --swap Swap  the  byte  order  of  all samples that are send to the CD-

       --session session-nr
              Used for read-toc and  read-cd  to  specify  the  session  which
              should be processed on multi session CDs.

              Indicates  that  the  tray  may be opened before writing without
              prompting the user to reset the disk status after  a  simulation

              Forces the execution of an operation that otherwise would not be

       --paranoia-mode mode
              Sets the correction mode for digital  audio  extraction.  0:  No
              checking,  data  is  copied  directly from the drive. 1: Perform
              overlapped  reading  to  avoid  jitter.  2:  Like  1  but   with
              additional  checks  of  the  read audio data. 3: Like 2 but with
              additional scratch detection and repair.

              The extraction speed reduces from 0 to 3.

              Default is the full paranoia mode (3).

              If a CD is copied with command copy this option will cause  that
              the  created  image  is  not  removed after the copy process has

              Perform CD copy on the fly without creating an image file.

              Enables the automatic fetching of CDDB data for use  as  CD-TEXT
              data for commands copy, read-toc and read-cd.

       --cddb-servers server-list
              Sets  space  or  ’,’  separated  list  of  CDDB servers used for
              command read-cddb or for commands where the  --with-cddb  option
              is active.  A server entry may have the following forms:

              Connect  to  <server>,  default  cddbp  port  (888),  use  cddbp

              Connect to <server>, port <port>, use cddbp protocol.

              Connect to <server>, default http port (80), use http  protocol,
              url: <cgi-bin-path>.

              Connect  to <server>, port <port>, use http protocol, url: <cgi-

              Connect to <proxy-server>, default  http  port  (80),  use  http
              protocol, url: http://<server>:<port>/<cgi-bin-path>.

              Connect to <proxy-server>, port <proxy-port>, use http protocol,
              url: http://<server>:<port>/<cgi-bin-path>.

              The <cgi-bin-path> is usually "/~cddb/cddb.cgi".

              All servers of the server list will be tried in the given  order
              until a successful connection can be established. For http proxy
              servers the first successful connected http proxy server will be
              used  independent  of  the ability to connect to the target http


       --cddb-timeout timeout
              Sets the  timeout  in  seconds  used  for  connections  to  CDDB

       --cddb-directory directory
              Specifies  the  local CDDB database directory where fetched CDDB
              records will be stored. If this option is not  given  a  fetched
              CDDB record will not be stored locally.

       --tmpdir directory
              Specifies  the  directory in which to store temporary data files
              created from decoding MP3 and  Ogg  Vorbis  files.  By  default,
              "/tmp" is used.

       --keep Upon exit from cdrdao, do not delete temporary WAV files created
              from MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files.

       --save Saves  some  of  the  current  options  to  the  settings   file
              "$HOME/.cdrdao"  and  exit.  See  section  ´SETTINGS´  for  more

       -n     Suppresses the 10 second pause before writing or simulating.

       -v verbose-level
              Sets verbose level. Levels > 2 are debug levels which produce  a
              lot of output.


       The  toc-file  describes  what  data  is written to the CD-R and allows
       control  over   track/index   positions,   pre-gaps   and   sub-channel
       information. It is a simple text file, use your favorite text editor to
       create it.

       A toc-file  contains  an  optional  header  and  a  sequence  of  track
       specifications.  Comments starting with ’//’ reaching until end of line
       can be placed anywhere.

       CATALOG "ddddddddddddd"
              Specifies the optional catalog number of the CD. The string must
              contain exactly 13 digits.

       The  following  flags specify the type of session that will be created.
       It is used to create  the  correct  CD-TOC  format  and  to  check  the
       consistency  of  the  track  modes  for  the  desired  session type. If
       multiple flags are given the last one will take effect.

       CD_DA  The disc contains only audio tracks.

       CD_ROM The disc contains just mode 1 tracks or mode 1 and audio  tracks
              (mixed mode CD).

              The  disc  contains mode 2 form 1 or mode 2 form 2 tracks. Audio
              tracks are allowed, too. This type must be used if multi session
              disks are created (option --multi).

       CD_TEXT { ... }
              Defines  global  CD-TEXT  data like the album title and the used
              languages.  See the CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of  the
              CD-TEXT block contents.

   Track Specification
       TRACK <track-mode> [<sub-channel-mode>]
              Starts  a  new  track, the track number is incremented by 1. The
              length of a track must be at least 4 seconds. The  block  length
              of the input data depends on the <track-mode>: AUDIO: 2352 bytes
              (588 samples), MODE1: 2048 bytes, MODE1_RAW: 2352 bytes,  MODE2:
              2336  bytes,  MODE2_FORM1:  2048 bytes, MODE2_FORM2: 2324 bytes,
              MODE2_FORM_MIX: 2336 bytes including the sub-header,  MODE2_RAW:
              2352  bytes.   The  <sub-channel-mode>  is optional. If given it
              specifies the type of sub-channel  data  for  each  sector.  RW:
              packed  R-W  sub-channel  data  (96  bytes,  L-EC  data  will be
              generated  if  required),  RW_RAW:  raw  R-W  sub-channel   data
              (interleaved  and  L-EC  data already calculated, 96 bytes). The
              block length is increased by the sub-channel data  length  if  a
              <sub-channel-mode>  is  specified.   If the input data length is
              not a multiple of the block  length   it  will  be  padded  with

       The following flags may follow the track start statement. They are used
       to set sub-channel information for the  current  track.  Each  flag  is
       optional.  If  not  given  the  following  defaults  are used: copy not
       permitted, no pre emphasis, two channel audio, no ISRC code.

       [ NO ] COPY
              Sets or clears the copy permitted flag.

       [ NO ] PRE_EMPHASIS
              Sets or clears the pre emphasis flag (only for audio tracks).

              Indicates that track contains two channel audio data  (only  for
              audio tracks).

              Indicates  that track contains four channel audio data (only for
              audio tracks).

              Sets ISRC code of track (only for audio tracks).
              C: country code (upper case letters or digits)
              O: owner code (upper case letters or digits)
              Y: year (digits)
              S: serial number (digits)

       An optional CD-TEXT block that defines the CD-TEXT data for this  track
       may follow. See the CD-TEXT section below for the syntax of the CD-TEXT
       block contents.

       CD_TEXT { ... }

       At least one of the following statements must  appear  to  specify  the
       data  for  the  current  track.  Lengths  and  start  positions  may be
       expressed in samples (1/44100 seconds) for audio tracks or in bytes for
       data  tracks. It is also possible to give the length in blocks with the
       MSF format ’MM:SS:FF’ specifying minutes, seconds and frames (0 <= ’FF’
       < 75) . A frame equals one block.

       If  more  than  one  statement  is  used  the track will be composed by
       concatenating the data in the specified order.

       SILENCE <length>
              Adds zero audio data of specified length to  the  current  audio
              track.  Useful to create silent pre-gaps.

       ZERO <length>
              Adds  zero  data  to data tracks. Must be used to define pre- or
              post-gaps between tracks of different mode.

       [ FILE | AUDIOFILE ] "<filename>" <start> [ <length> ]
              Adds the audio data of  specified  file  to  the  current  audio
              track.  It is possible to select a portion of an audio file with
              <start> and <length> which allows non destructive  cutting.  The
              first  sample of an audio file is addressed with <start> = 0. If
              <length> is omitted or set to 0  all  audio  data  from  <start>
              until the end of file is used.

              Audio files may have raw or WAVE format with 16 bits per sample,
              44.1 kHz sampling rate, stereo. Raw files must have  the  layout
              ’MSBLeft LSBLeft MSBRight LSBRight ...’ (big endian byte order).
              WAVE files are expected to have little endian  byte  order.  The
              option  --swap  reverses the expected byte order for all raw and
              WAVE files. Only filenames with a ".wav" ending are  treated  as
              WAVE  files,  all other names are assumed to be raw audio files.
              Use tools like sox(1) to convert other file formats to supported

              Specifying  a "-" as filename causes data to be read from STDIN.
              Currently only raw files are supported from STDIN.

              If you are unsure about the byte order of your audio  files  try
              the  command  ’show-data’. If the byte order is correct you will
              see a sequence of increasing  or  decreasing  numbers  for  both
              channels.  Otherwise  numbers  are jumping between very high and
              low values - high volume static.

       DATAFILE "<filename>" [ <length> ]
              Adds data from given file to the current data track. If <length>
              is omitted the actual file length will be used.

       FIFO "<fifo path>" <length>
              Adds  data from specified FIFO path to the current audio or data
              track.  <length> must specify the amount of data  that  will  be
              read  from  the  FIFO.  The  value  is  always in terms of bytes
              (scalar value) or in terms of the block length (MSF value).

       START [ MM:SS:FF ]
              Defines the length of the pre-gap (position where index switches
              from  0  to  1).  If  the MSF value is omitted the current track
              length is used. If the current track length is not a multiple of
              the  block  length the pre-gap length will be rounded up to next
              block boundary.

              If no START statement is given the track will not  have  a  pre-

              This  is  an  alternate way to specify a pre-gap with zero audio
              data. It may appear before  the  first  SILENCE,  ZERO  or  FILE
              statement.  Either  PREGAP  or  START can be used within a track
              specification. It is equivalent to the sequence
                SILENCE MM:SS:FF
              for audio tracks or
                ZERO MM:SS:FF
              for data tracks.

       Nothing prevents  mixing  ’DATAFILE’/’ZERO’  and  ’AUDIOFILE’/’SILENCE’
       statements  within the same track. The results, however, are undefined.

       The end of a  track  specification  may  contain  zero  or  more  index
       increment statements:

              Increments  the index number at given position within the track.
              The first statement will increment from 1 to 2. The position  is
              relative  to the real track start, not counting an existing pre-

   CD-TEXT Blocks
       A CD-TEXT block may be placed in the  global  section  to  define  data
       valid  for  the whole CD and in each track specification of a toc-file.
       The global section must define a language map that is  used  to  map  a
       language-number  to  country  codes. Up to 8 different languages can be

       LANGUAGE_MAP { 0 : c1  1 : c2  ...  7 : c7 }
              The country code may be an integer value in the range 0..255  or
              one  of the following countries (the corresponding integer value
              is placed in braces behind the token): EN(9, English)
              It is just necessary to define a mapping for the used languages.

       If  no  mapping exists for a language-number the data for this language
       will be ignored.

       For each language a language block must exist that defines  the  actual
       data for a certain language.

       LANGUAGE  language-number  { cd-text-item cd-text-data cd-text-item cd-
       text-data ... }
              Defines  the  CD-TEXT items for given language-number which must
              be defined in the language map.

       The cd-text-data may be either a string enclosed by "  or  binary  data
            { 0, 10, 255, ... }
       where each integer number must be in the range 0..255.
       The cd-text-item may be one of the following:

       TITLE  String data: Title of CD or track.

              String data.

              String data.

              String data.

              String data.

              String data. Message to the user.

              String data: Should only appear in the global CD-TEXT block. The
              format is usually: XY12345

       GENRE  Mixture of binary data (genre code) and string data. Should only
              appear  in  the  global  CD-TEXT  block.  Useful entries will be
              created by gcdmaster.

              Binary data: Optional table of contents 1. Should only appear in
              the global CD-TEXT block.

              Binary data: Optional table of contents 2. Should only appear in
              the global CD-TEXT block.

              String data: This item should only appear in the global  CD-TEXT
              block.  Was  always  an  empty  string  on the CD-TEXT CDs I had
              access to.

       ISRC   String data: ISRC code of track. The format is usually:  CC-OOO-

              Binary  data: Contains summary about all CD-TEXT data and should
              only appear in the  global  CD-TEXT  block.  The  data  will  be
              automatically (re)created when the CD-TEXT data is written.

              If  one  of  the  CD-TEXT  items  TITLE,  PERFORMER, SONGWRITER,
              COMPOSER, ARRANGER, ISRC is defined for at least on track or  in
              the  global section it must be defined for all tracks and in the
              global section. If a DISC_ID  item  is  defined  in  the  global
              section, an ISRC entry must be defined for each track.

       Simple  track  without  pre-gap  with  all  audio  data  from WAVE file
            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "data.wav" 0

       Standard track with two second pre-gap, ISRC code and CD-TEXT:
            CD_TEXT {
              LANGUAGE_MAP {
                0 : EN

              LANGUAGE 0 {
                TITLE "CD Title"
                PERFORMER "Performer"
                DISC_ID "XY12345"
                UPC_EAN ""

            TRACK AUDIO
            ISRC "DEXXX9800001"
            CD_TEXT {
              LANGUAGE 0 {
                TITLE "Track Title"
                PERFORMER "Performer"
                ISRC "DE-XXX-98-00001"
            PREGAP 0:2:0
            FILE "data.wav" 0

       Track with 10 second  pre-gap  containing  audio  data  from  raw  file
            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "data.cdr" 0
            START 0:10:0

       Composed  track with data from different files. Pre-gap data and length
       is taken from "pregapdata.wav". The  first  minute  of  "track.cdr"  is
       omitted  and two seconds silence are inserted at ’2:0:0’. Index will be
       incremented after 2 and 4 minutes past track start:
            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "pregapdata.wav" 0
            FILE "track.cdr" 1:0:0 1:0:0
            SILENCE 0:2:0
            FILE "track.cdr" 2:0:0
            INDEX 2:0:0
            INDEX 4:0:0

       Mixed mode CD with a data track as first track followed  by  two  audio
            TRACK MODE1
            DATAFILE "data_1"
            ZERO 00:02:00 // post-gap

            TRACK AUDIO
            SILENCE 00:02:00 // pre-gap
            FILE "data_2.wav" 0

            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "data_3.wav" 0


       Cue   files   may   be  used  wherever  a  toc-file  is  expected.  The
       corresponding bin file is not taken from the FILE statement  of  a  cue
       file  but  constructed  from  the  cue file name by replacing ".cue" by
       ".bin". The cue file must have exactly one FILE statement.

       Currently, following track modes are supported: MODE1/2048, MODE1/2352,
       MODE2/2336,  MODE2/2352.  The  CATALOG, ISRC and POSTGAP statements are
       parsed but not evaluated, yet.


       Some of the command line options can be stored as settings at following
       locations. The files will be read on startup of cdrdao in that order:

       1. /etc/cdrdao.conf

       2. /etc/defaults/cdrdao

       3. /etc/default/cdrdao

       4. $HOME/.cdrdao

       Command  line options will overwrite the loaded settings.  The settings
       file contains name - value pairs separated by a  colon.  String  values
       must be enclosed by ". The file is automatically written if the command
       line option --save is used  but  it  is  also  possible  to  modify  it
       manually. Following values are defined:

              Device  used  for operations simulate, write, copy, blank, disk-
              info and unlock.  Corresponding option: --device

              Driver (including driver options) that is  used  for  operations
              simulate,    write,   copy,   blank,   disk-info   and   unlock.
              Corresponding option: --driver

              Specifies writing speed. Corresponding option: --speed

              Specifies fifo buffers used for recording. Corresponding option:

              Device   used   for   operations  read-toc,  read-cd  and  copy.
              Corresponding option: --device or --source-device

              Driver (including driver options) used for operations  read-toc,
              read-cd  and  copy.  Corresponding option: --driver or --source-

              Paranoia  mode   used   for   operations   read-cd   and   copy.
              Corresponding option: --paranoia-mode

              CDDB  server  list for read-cddb.  Corresponding option: --cddb-

              CDDB  connection  timeout  in   seconds   used   by   read-cddb.
              Corresponding option: --cddb-timeout

              Local  directory where fetched CDDB records will be stored, used
              by read-cddb.  Corresponding option: --cddb-directory

              Directory  where  temporary  WAV  files  will  be  created  from
              decoding   MP3  and  Ogg  Vorbis  files.  Corresponding  option:


       If the program is terminated during the write/simulation  process  used
       IPC  resources  may not be released. Use ipcs(8) and ipcrm(8) to delete


       Andreas Mueller [DEFUNCT]
       Denis Leroy <>
       Manuel Clos <>


       gcdmaster(1), cdrecord(1), cdda2wav(1), cdparanoia(1), sox(1), ipcs(8),

                                 Jan 18, 2006