Man Linux: Main Page and Category List


       BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux


        busybox <applet> [arguments...]  # or

        <applet> [arguments...]            # if symlinked


       BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a
       single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most
       of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc.
       The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-
       featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide
       the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU

       BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources
       in mind.  It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or
       exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to
       customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add
       /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.  BusyBox provides a fairly complete
       POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

       BusyBox is extremely configurable.  This allows you to include only the
       components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or
       'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable.
       Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

       After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to
       install BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the
       target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set
       when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at
       install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make
       CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled any applet
       installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also
       be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.


       BusyBox is a multi-call binary.  A multi-call binary is an executable
       program that performs the same job as more than one utility program.
       That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single
       binary acts like a large number of utilities.  This allows BusyBox to
       be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them
       applets) can share code for many common operations.

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the
       command line.  For example, entering

               /bin/busybox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

       Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful.
       So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.

       For example, entering

               ln -s /bin/busybox ls

       will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been
       compiled into BusyBox).  Generally speaking, you should never need to
       make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this
       for you when you run the 'make install' command.

       If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a
       list of the applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.


       Most BusyBox applets support the --help argument to provide a terse
       runtime description of their behavior.  If the
       CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed
       usage information will also be available.


       Currently available applets include:

               [, [[, acpid, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arp, arping, ash,
               awk, basename, bbconfig, beep, blkid, brctl, bunzip2, busybox,
               bzcat, bzip2, cal, cat, catv, chat, chattr, chcon, chgrp, chmod,
               chown, chpasswd, chpst, chroot, chrt, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp,
               comm, cp, cpio, crond, crontab, cryptpw, cttyhack, cut, date, dc,
               dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser, depmod, devfsd, devmem, df,
               dhcprelay, diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dnsdomainname, dos2unix,
               dpkg, dpkg_deb, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck, echo, ed,
               egrep, eject, env, envdir, envuidgid, ether_wake, expand, expr,
               fakeidentd, false, fbset, fbsplash, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk,
               fgrep, find, findfs, flash_eraseall, flash_lock, flash_unlock,
               fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck, fsck_minix, fsync, ftpd, ftpget,
               ftpput, fuser, getenforce, getopt, getsebool, getty, grep,
               gunzip, gzip, halt, hd, hdparm, head, hexdump, hostid, hostname,
               httpd, hush, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifenslave, ifplugd,
               ifup, inetd, init, inotifyd, insmod, install, ionice, ip, ipaddr,
               ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, iproute, iprule, iptunnel, kbd_mode,
               kill, killall, killall5, klogd, lash, last, length, less,
               linux32, linux64, linuxrc, ln, load_policy, loadfont, loadkmap,
               logger, login, logname, logread, losetup, lpd, lpq, lpr, ls,
               lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, lzop, lzopcat, makedevs, makemime, man,
               matchpathcon, md5sum, mdev, mesg, microcom, mkdir, mke2fs,
               mkfifo, mkfs_minix, mkfs_vfat, mknod, mkpasswd, mkswap, mktemp,
               modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, msh, mt, mv, nameif, nc,
               netstat, nice, nmeter, nohup, nslookup, od, openvt, parse,
               passwd, patch, pgrep, pidof, ping, ping6, pipe_progress,
               pivot_root, pkill, popmaildir, poweroff, printenv, printf, ps,
               pscan, pwd, raidautorun, rdate, rdev, readahead, readlink,
               readprofile, realpath, reboot, reformime, renice, reset, resize,
               restorecon, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, rtcwake,
               run_parts, runcon, runlevel, runsv, runsvdir, rx, script,
               scriptreplay, sed, selinuxenabled, sendmail, seq, sestatus,
               setarch, setconsole, setenforce, setfiles, setfont, setkeycodes,
               setlogcons, setsebool, setsid, setuidgid, sh, sha1sum, sha256sum,
               sha512sum, showkey, slattach, sleep, softlimit, sort, split,
               start_stop_daemon, stat, static_sh, strings, stty, su, sulogin,
               sum, sv, svlogd, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl,
               syslogd, tac, tail, tar, taskset, tc, tcpsvd, tee, telnet,
               telnetd, test, tftp, tftpd, time, timeout, top, touch, tr,
               traceroute, true, tty, ttysize, tunctl, tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd,
               udpsvd, umount, uname, uncompress, unexpand, uniq, unix2dos,
               unlzma, unlzop, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode,
               vconfig, vi, vlock, volname, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which,
               who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip


           acpid      [-d] [-c CONFDIR] [-l LOGFILE] [-e PROC_EVENT_FILE]

           Listen to ACPI events and spawn specific helpers on event arrival


                   -d      Do not daemonize and log to stderr
                   -c DIR  Config directory [/etc/acpi]
                   -e FILE /proc event file [/proc/acpi/event]
                   -l FILE Log file [/var/log/acpid]

           Accept and ignore compatibility options -g -m -s -S -v


                   # acpid -l /var/log/my-acpi-log
                   # acpid -d /dev/input/event*

           addgroup   [-g GID] [user_name] group_name

           Add a group or add a user to a group


                   -g GID  Group id
                   -S      Create a system group

           adduser    [OPTIONS] user_name

           Add a user


                   -h DIR          Home directory
                   -g GECOS        GECOS field
                   -s SHELL        Login shell
                   -G GROUP        Add user to existing group
                   -S              Create a system user
                   -D              Do not assign a password
                   -H              Do not create home directory
                   -u UID          User id

           adjtimex   [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t

           Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See


                   -q              Quiet
                   -o offset       Time offset, microseconds
                   -f frequency    Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
                                   (positive values make clock run faster)
                   -t tick         Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
                   -p timeconstant

       ar  ar         [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

           Extract or list FILES from an ar archive


                   -o      Preserve original dates
                   -p      Extract to stdout
                   -t      List
                   -x      Extract
                   -v      Verbose

       arp arp [-vn]     [-H type] [-i if] -a [hostname] [-v]        [-i if]
           -d hostname [pub] [-v] [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [temp]
           [-v] [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [netmask nm] pub
           [-v] [-H type] [-i if] -Ds hostname ifa [netmask nm] pub

           Manipulate ARP cache


                   -a              Display (all) hosts
                   -s              Set new ARP entry
                   -d              Delete a specified entry
                   -v              Verbose
                   -n              Don't resolve names
                   -i IF           Network interface
                   -D              Read <hwaddr> from given device
                   -A, -p AF       Protocol family
                   -H HWTYPE       Hardware address type

           arping     [-fqbDUA] [-c count] [-w timeout] [-I dev] [-s sender]

           Send ARP requests/replies


                   -f              Quit on first ARP reply
                   -q              Quiet
                   -b              Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
                   -D              Duplicated address detection mode
                   -U              Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
                   -A              ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
                   -c N            Stop after sending N ARP requests
                   -w timeout      Time to wait for ARP reply, in seconds
                   -I dev          Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -s sender       Sender IP address
                   target          Target IP address

       ash ash        #define ash_full_usage

       awk awk        [OPTIONS] [AWK_PROGRAM] [FILE]...


                   -v VAR=VAL      Set variable
                   -F SEP          Use SEP as field separator
                   -f FILE         Read program from file

           basename   FILE [SUFFIX]

           Strip directory path and suffixes from FILE.  If specified, also
           remove any trailing SUFFIX.


                   $ basename /usr/local/bin/foo
                   $ basename /usr/local/bin/
                   $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt


           Print the config file which built busybox

           beep       -f freq -l length -d delay -r repetitions -n


                   -f      Frequency in Hz
                   -l      Length in ms
                   -d      Delay in ms
                   -r      Repetitions
                   -n      Start new tone


           Print UUIDs of all filesystems.

           brctl      COMMAND [BRIDGE [INTERFACE]]

           Manage ethernet bridges.


                   show                    Show a list of bridges
                   addbr BRIDGE            Create BRIDGE
                   delbr BRIDGE            Delete BRIDGE
                   addif BRIDGE IFACE      Add IFACE to BRIDGE
                   delif BRIDGE IFACE      Delete IFACE from BRIDGE
                   setageing BRIDGE TIME           Set ageing time
                   setfd BRIDGE TIME               Set bridge forward delay
                   sethello BRIDGE TIME            Set hello time
                   setmaxage BRIDGE TIME           Set max message age
                   setpathcost BRIDGE COST         Set path cost
                   setportprio BRIDGE PRIO         Set port priority
                   setbridgeprio BRIDGE PRIO       Set bridge priority
                   stp BRIDGE [1|0]                STP on/off

           bunzip2    [OPTIONS] [FILE]

           Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)


                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force


           Hello world!

           bzcat      FILE

           Uncompress to stdout

           bzip2      [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Compress FILE(s) with bzip2 algorithm.  When FILE is '-' or
           unspecified, reads standard input. Implies -c.


                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -d      Decompress
                   -f      Force
                   -1..-9  Compression level

       cal cal        [-jy] [[month] year]

           Display a calendar


                   -j      Use julian dates
                   -y      Display the entire year

       cat cat        [-u] [FILE]...

           Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout


                   -u      Use unbuffered i/o (ignored)


                   $ cat /proc/uptime
                   110716.72 17.67

           catv       [-etv] [FILE]...

           Display nonprinting characters as ^x or M-x


                   -e      End each line with $
                   -t      Show tabs as ^I
                   -v      Don't use ^x or M-x escapes

           chat       EXPECT [SEND [EXPECT [SEND...]]]

           Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout.  A
           script consists of one or more "expect-send" pairs of strings, each
           pair is a pair of arguments. Example: chat '' ATZ OK ATD123456
           CONNECT '' ogin: pppuser word: ppppass '~'

           chattr     [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v version] files...

           Change file attributes on an ext2 fs


                   -       Remove attributes
                   +       Add attributes
                   =       Set attributes

                   A       Don't track atime
                   a       Append mode only
                   c       Enable compress
                   D       Write dir contents synchronously
                   d       Do not backup with dump
                   i       Cannot be modified (immutable)
                   j       Write all data to journal first
                   s       Zero disk storage when deleted
                   S       Write file contents synchronously
                   t       Disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files
                   u       Allow file to be undeleted

                   -R      Recursively list subdirectories
                   -v      Set the file's version/generation number

           chcon      [OPTIONS] CONTEXT FILE...       chcon [OPTIONS] [-u
           USER] [-r ROLE] [-l RANGE] [-t TYPE] FILE...       chcon [OPTIONS]
           --reference=RFILE FILE...

           Change the security context of each FILE to CONTEXT

                   -v,--verbose            Verbose
                   -c,--changes            Report changes made
                   -h,--no-dereference     Affect symlinks instead of their targets
                   -f,--silent,--quiet     Suppress most error messages
                   --reference=RFILE       Use RFILE's group instead of using a CONTEXT value
                   -u,--user=USER          Set user/role/type/range in the target
                   -r,--role=ROLE          security context
                   -R,--recursive          Recurse subdirectories

           chgrp      [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...

           Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP


                   -R      Recurse directories
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      Verbose
                   -f      Hide errors


                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chgrp root /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 andersen root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

           chmod      [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

           Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols
           +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst


                   -R      Recurse directories
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      List all files
                   -f      Hide errors


                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -rwxrw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo*
                   $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

           chown      [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

           Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP


                   -R      Recurse directories
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      List all files
                   -f      Hide errors


                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chown root /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 root     andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chown root.root /tmp/foo
                   ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

           chpasswd   [--md5|--encrypted]

           Read user:password information from stdin and update /etc/passwd


                   -e,--encrypted  Supplied passwords are in encrypted form
                   -m,--md5        Use MD5 encryption instead of DES

           chpst      [-vP012] [-u USER[:GRP]] [-U USER[:GRP]] [-e DIR]
                [-/ DIR] [-n NICE] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-o N]      [-p N]
           [-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] PROG ARGS

           Change the process state and run PROG


                   -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid and gid
                   -U USER[:GRP]   Set $UID and $GID in environment
                   -e DIR          Set environment variables as specified by files
                                   in DIR: file=1st_line_of_file
                   -/ DIR          Chroot to DIR
                   -n NICE         Add NICE to nice value
                   -m BYTES        Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES
                   -d BYTES        Limit data segment
                   -o N            Limit number of open files per process
                   -p N            Limit number of processes per uid
                   -f BYTES        Limit output file sizes
                   -c BYTES        Limit core file size
                   -v              Verbose
                   -P              Create new process group
                   -0              Close standard input
                   -1              Close standard output
                   -2              Close standard error

           chroot     NEWROOT [PROG [ARGS]]

           Run PROG with root directory set to NEWROOT


                   $ ls -l /bin/ls
                   lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root          12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox
                   # mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix
                   # chroot /mnt
                   # ls -l /bin/ls
                   -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        40816 Feb  5 07:45 /bin/ls*

           chrt       [OPTIONS] [PRIO] [PID | PROG [ARGS]]

           Manipulate real-time attributes of a process


                   -p      Operate on pid
                   -r      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_RR
                   -f      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_FIFO
                   -o      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_OTHER
                   -m      Show min and max priorities


                   $ chrt -r 4 sleep 900; x=$!
                   $ chrt -f -p 3 $x
                   You need CAP_SYS_NICE privileges to set scheduling attributes of a process

           chvt       N

           Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

           cksum      FILES...

           Calculate the CRC32 checksums of FILES


           Clear screen

       cmp cmp        [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]

           Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified


                   -l      Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
                           for all differing bytes
                   -s      Quiet

           comm       [-123] FILE1 FILE2

           Compare FILE1 to FILE2, or to stdin if - is specified


                   -1      Suppress lines unique to FILE1
                   -2      Suppress lines unique to FILE2
                   -3      Suppress lines common to both files

       cp  cp         [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST

           Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY


                   -a      Same as -dpR
                   -c      Preserve security context
                   -d,-P   Preserve links
                   -H,-L   Dereference all symlinks (default)
                   -p      Preserve file attributes if possible
                   -f      Force overwrite
                   -i      Prompt before overwrite
                   -R,-r   Recurse directories
                   -l,-s   Create (sym)links

           cpio       -[tiopdmvu] [-F FILE] [-H newc]

           Extract or list files from a cpio archive, or create a cpio archive
           Main operation mode:

                   -t      List
                   -i      Extract
                   -o      Create
                   -p      Passthrough

                   -d      Make leading directories
                   -m      Preserve mtime
                   -v      Verbose
                   -u      Overwrite
                   -F      Input file
                   -H      Define format

           crond      -fbS -l N -d N -L LOGFILE -c DIR

                   -f      Foreground
                   -b      Background (default)
                   -S      Log to syslog (default)
                   -l      Set log level. 0 is the most verbose, default 8
                   -d      Set log level, log to stderr
                   -L      Log to file
                   -c      Working dir

           crontab    [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]

                   -c      Crontab directory
                   -u      User
                   -l      List crontab
                   -e      Edit crontab
                   -r      Delete crontab
                   FILE    Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)

           cryptpw    [OPTIONS] [PASSWORD] [SALT]

           Crypt the PASSWORD using crypt(3)


                   -P,--password-fd=NUM    Read password from fd NUM/*   "
                   -s,--stdin              Use stdin; like -P0" */
                   -m,--method=TYPE        Encryption method TYPE

           cttyhack   #define cttyhack_full_usage

       cut cut        [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print selected fields from each input FILE to standard output


                   -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
                   -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
                   -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
                   -s      Output only the lines containing delimiter
                   -f N    Print only these fields
                   -n      Ignored


                   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 1 -d ' '
                   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 2 -d ' '

           date       [OPTIONS] [+FMT] [TIME]

           Display time (using +FMT), or set time


                   [-s] TIME       Set time to TIME
                   -u              Work in UTC (don't convert to local time)
                   -R              Output RFC-822 compliant date string
                   -I[SPEC]        Output ISO-8601 compliant date string
                                   SPEC='date' (default) for date only,
                                   'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
                                   time to the indicated precision
                   -r FILE         Display last modification time of FILE
                   -d TIME         Display TIME, not 'now'
                   -D FMT          Use FMT for -d TIME conversion

           Recognized formats for TIME:

                   YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm[:ss]


                   $ date
                   Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000

       dc  dc         expression...

           Tiny RPN calculator. Operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %,
           mod, **, exp, and, or, not, eor, p - print top of the stack
           (without altering the stack), f - print entire stack, o - pop the
           value and set output radix (value must be 10 or 16).  Examples: 'dc
           2 2 add' -> 4, 'dc 8 8 * 2 2 + /' -> 16.


                   $ dc 2 2 + p
                   $ dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + / p
                   $ dc 0 1 and p
                   $ dc 0 1 or p
                   $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul p | dc

       dd  dd         [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N]
           [skip=N]      [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync|fsync]

           Copy a file with converting and formatting


                   if=FILE         Read from FILE instead of stdin
                   of=FILE         Write to FILE instead of stdout
                   bs=N            Read and write N bytes at a time
                   ibs=N           Read N bytes at a time
                   obs=N           Write N bytes at a time
                   count=N         Copy only N input blocks
                   skip=N          Skip N input blocks
                   seek=N          Skip N output blocks
                   conv=notrunc    Don't truncate output file
                   conv=noerror    Continue after read errors
                   conv=sync       Pad blocks with zeros
                   conv=fsync      Physically write data out before finishing

           Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k
           (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G


                   $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4
                   4+0 records in
                   4+0 records out

           deallocvt  [N]

           Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

           delgroup   [USER] GROUP

           Delete group GROUP from the system or user USER from group GROUP

           deluser    USER

           Delete USER from the system

           depmod     #define depmod_full_usage

           devfsd     mntpnt [-v][-fg][-np]

           Manage devfs permissions and old device name symlinks


                   mntpnt  The mount point where devfs is mounted
                   -v      Print the protocol version numbers for devfsd
                           and the kernel-side protocol version and exit
                   -fg     Run in foreground
                   -np     Exit after parsing the configuration file
                           and processing synthetic REGISTER events,
                           do not poll for events

           devmem     ADDRESS [WIDTH [VALUE]]

           Read/write from physical address

                   ADDRESS Address to act upon
                   WIDTH   Width (8/16/...)
                   VALUE   Data to be written

       df  df         [-Pkmhai] [-B SIZE] [FILESYSTEM...]

           Print filesystem usage statistics


                   -P      POSIX output format
                   -k      1024-byte blocks (default)
                   -m      1M-byte blocks
                   -h      Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
                   -a      Show all filesystems
                   -i      Inodes
                   -B SIZE Blocksize


                   $ df
                   Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
                   /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /
                   /dev/sda1                64216     36364     27852  57% /boot
                   $ df /dev/sda3
                   Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
                   /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /
                   $ POSIXLY_CORRECT=sure df /dev/sda3
                   Filesystem         512B-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
                   /dev/sda3             17381728  17107080    274648  98% /
                   $ POSIXLY_CORRECT=yep df -P /dev/sda3
                   Filesystem          512-blocks      Used Available Capacity Mounted on
                   /dev/sda3             17381728  17107080    274648      98% /


           Relay DHCP requests between clients and server

           diff       [-abdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1

           Compare files line by line and output the differences between them.
           This implementation supports unified diffs only.


                   -a      Treat all files as text
                   -b      Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace
                   -d      Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
                   -i      Ignore case differences
                   -L      Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header
                   -N      Treat absent files as empty
                   -q      Output only whether files differ
                   -r      Recursively compare subdirectories
                   -S      Start with FILE when comparing directories
                   -T      Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary
                   -s      Report when two files are the same
                   -t      Expand tabs to spaces in output
                   -U      Output LINES lines of context
                   -w      Ignore all whitespace

           dirname    FILENAME

           Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME


                   $ dirname /tmp/foo
                   $ dirname /tmp/foo/

           dmesg      [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

           Print or control the kernel ring buffer


                   -c              Clear ring buffer after printing
                   -n LEVEL        Set console logging level
                   -s SIZE         Buffer size

           dnsd       [-c config] [-t seconds] [-p port] [-i iface-ip] [-d]

           Small static DNS server daemon


                   -c      Config filename
                   -t      TTL in seconds
                   -p      Listening port
                   -i      Listening ip (default all)
                   -d      Daemonize

           dnsdomainname #define dnsdomainname_full_usage

           dos2unix   [OPTION] [FILE]

           Convert FILE in-place from DOS to Unix format.  When no file is
           given, use stdin/stdout.


                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

           dpkg       [-ilCPru] [-F option] package_name

           Install, remove and manage Debian packages


                   -i              Install the package
                   -l              List of installed packages
                   -C              Configure an unpackaged package
                   -F depends      Ignore dependency problems
                   -P              Purge all files of a package
                   -r              Remove all but the configuration files for a package
                   -u              Unpack a package, but don't configure it

           dpkg-deb   [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

           Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)


                   -c      List contents of filesystem tree
                   -e      Extract control files to [argument] directory
                   -f      Display control field name starting with [argument]
                   -x      Extract packages filesystem tree to directory
                   -X      Verbose extract


                   $ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp

       du  du         [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

           Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.  Disk
           space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.


                   -a      Show file sizes too
                   -H      Follow symlinks on command line
                   -L      Follow all symlinks
                   -d N    Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
                   -c      Show grand total
                   -l      Count sizes many times if hard linked
                   -s      Display only a total for each argument
                   -x      Skip directories on different filesystems
                   -h      Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
                   -m      Sizes in megabytes
                   -k      Sizes in kilobytes (default)


                   $ du
                   16      ./CVS
                   12      ./kernel-patches/CVS
                   80      ./kernel-patches
                   12      ./tests/CVS
                   36      ./tests
                   12      ./scripts/CVS
                   16      ./scripts
                   12      ./docs/CVS
                   104     ./docs
                   2417    .

           dumpkmap   > keymap

           Print a binary keyboard translation table to standard output


                   $ dumpkmap > keymap

           dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

           Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd


                   -f,--file=FILE  Leases file to load
                   -r,--remaining  Interpret lease times as time remaining
                   -a,--absolute   Interpret lease times as expire time

           e2fsck     [-panyrcdfvstDFSV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize] [-I
           inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size] [-l|-L
           bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal] [-E
           extended-options] device

           Check ext2/ext3 file system


                   -p              Automatic repair (no questions)
                   -n              Make no changes to the filesystem
                   -y              Assume 'yes' to all questions
                   -c              Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list
                   -f              Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean
                   -v              Verbose
                   -b superblock   Use alternative superblock
                   -B blocksize    Force blocksize when looking for superblock
                   -j journal      Set location of the external journal
                   -l file         Add to badblocks list
                   -L file         Set badblocks list

           echo       [-neE] [ARG...]

           Print the specified ARGs to stdout


                   -n      Suppress trailing newline
                   -e      Interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)
                   -E      Disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters


                   $ echo "Erik is cool"
                   Erik is cool
                   $ echo -e "Erik\nis\ncool"
                   $ echo "Erik\nis\ncool"

       ed  ed         #define ed_full_usage

           egrep      #define egrep_full_usage

           eject      [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]

           Eject specified DEVICE (or default /dev/cdrom)


                   -s      SCSI device
                   -t      Close tray
                   -T      Open/close tray (toggle)

       env env        [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG [ARGS]]

           Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up the
           specified environment


                   -, -i   Start with an empty environment
                   -u      Remove variable from the environment

           envdir     dir prog args

           Set various environment variables as specified by files in the
           directory dir and run PROG

           envuidgid  account prog args

           Set $UID to account's uid and $GID to account's gid and run PROG

           ether-wake [-b] [-i iface] [-p aa:bb:cc:dd[:ee:ff]] MAC

           Send a magic packet to wake up sleeping machines.  MAC must be a
           station address (00:11:22:33:44:55) or a hostname with a known
           'ethers' entry.


                   -b              Send wake-up packet to the broadcast address
                   -i iface        Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -p pass         Append four or six byte password PW to the packet

           expand     [-i] [-t NUM] [FILE|-]

           Convert tabs to spaces, writing to standard output.


                   -i,--initial    Do not convert tabs after non blanks
                   -t,--tabs=N     Tabstops every N chars

           expr       EXPRESSION

           Print the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.

           EXPRESSION may be:

                   ARG1 | ARG2     ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
                   ARG1 & ARG2     ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
                   ARG1 < ARG2     1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
                   ARG1 <= ARG2
                   ARG1 = ARG2
                   ARG1 != ARG2
                   ARG1 >= ARG2
                   ARG1 > ARG2
                   ARG1 + ARG2     Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
                   ARG1 - ARG2
                   ARG1 * ARG2
                   ARG1 / ARG2
                   ARG1 % ARG2
                   STRING : REGEXP         Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
                   match STRING REGEXP     Same as STRING : REGEXP
                   substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
                   index STRING CHARS      Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
                   length STRING           Length of STRING
                   quote TOKEN             Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
                                           it is a keyword like 'match' or an
                                           operator like '/'
                   (EXPRESSION)            Value of EXPRESSION

           Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.
           Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else
           lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between
           \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the
           number of characters matched or 0.

           fakeidentd [-fiw] [-b ADDR] [STRING]

           Provide fake ident (auth) service


                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -i      Inetd mode
                   -w      Inetd 'wait' mode
                   -b ADDR Bind to specified address
                   STRING  Ident answer string (default is 'nobody')


           Return an exit code of FALSE (1)


                   $ false
                   $ echo $?

           fbset      [OPTIONS] [MODE]

           Show and modify frame buffer settings


                   $ fbset
                   mode "1024x768-76"
                           # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz
                           geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16
                           timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4
                           accel false
                           rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0

           fbsplash   -s IMGFILE [-c] [-d DEV] [-i INIFILE] [-f CMD]


                   -s      Image
                   -c      Hide cursor
                   -d      Framebuffer device (default /dev/fb0)
                   -i      Config file (var=value):
                   -f      Control pipe (else exit after drawing image)
                                   commands: 'NN' (% for progress bar) or 'exit'

           fdflush    DEVICE

           Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change

           fdformat   [-n] DEVICE

           Format floppy disk


                   -n      Don't verify after format

           fdisk      [-uls] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ]

           Change partition table


                   -u              Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
                   -l              Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
                   -s              Show partition sizes in kb for each DISK, then exit
                   -b 2048         (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
                   -C CYLINDERS    Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
                   -H HEADS

                   -S SECTORS

           fgrep      #define fgrep_full_usage

           find       [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

           Search for files. The default PATH is the current directory,
           default EXPRESSION is '-print'

           EXPRESSION may consist of:

                   -follow         Dereference symlinks
                   -xdev           Don't descend directories on other filesystems
                   -maxdepth N     Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
                                   tests/actions to command line arguments only
                   -mindepth N     Do not act on first N levels
                   -name PATTERN   File name (w/o directory name) matches PATTERN
                   -iname PATTERN  Case insensitive -name
                   -path PATTERN   Path matches PATTERN
                   -regex PATTERN  Path matches regex PATTERN
                   -type X         File type is X (X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
                   -perm NNN       Permissions match any of (+NNN), all of (-NNN),
                                   or exactly (NNN)
                   -mtime DAYS     Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly (N) days
                   -mmin MINS      Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly (N) minutes
                   -newer FILE     Modified time is more recent than FILE's
                   -inum N         File has inode number N
                   -user NAME      File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)
                   -group NAME     File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)
                   -depth          Process directory name after traversing it
                   -size N[bck]    File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.)).
                                   +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
                   -print          Print (default and assumed)
                   -print0         Delimit output with null characters rather than
                                   newlines        IF_FEATURE_FIND_CONTEXT (
                   -context        File has specified security context")
                   -exec CMD ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
                                   matching files
                   -prune          Stop traversing current subtree
                   -delete         Delete files, turns on -depth option
                   (EXPR)          Group an expression


                   $ find / -name passwd

           findfs     LABEL=label or UUID=uuid

           Find a filesystem device based on a label or UUID.


                   $ findfs LABEL=MyDevice

           flash_eraseall [-jq] MTD_DEVICE

           Erase an MTD device


                   -j      format the device for jffs2
                   -q      don't display progress messages

           flash_lock MTD_DEVICE OFFSET SECTORS

           Lock part or all of an MTD device. If SECTORS is -1, then all
           sectors will be locked, regardless of the value of OFFSET

           flash_unlock MTD_DEVICE

           Unlock an MTD device

           fold       [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]

           Wrap input lines in each FILE (standard input by default), writing
           to standard output


                   -b      Count bytes rather than columns
                   -s      Break at spaces
                   -w      Use WIDTH columns instead of 80


           Display the amount of free and used system memory


                   $ free
                                 total         used         free       shared      buffers
                     Mem:       257628       248724         8904        59644        93124
                    Swap:       128516         8404       120112
                   Total:       386144       257128       129016

           freeramdisk DEVICE

           Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk


                   $ freeramdisk /dev/ram2

           fsck       [-ANPRTV] [-C fd] [-t fstype] [fs-options] [filesys...]

           Check and repair filesystems


                   -A      Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems
                   -N      Don't execute, just show what would be done
                   -P      With -A, check filesystems in parallel
                   -R      With -A, skip the root filesystem
                   -T      Don't show title on startup
                   -V      Verbose
                   -C n    Write status information to specified filedescriptor
                   -t type List of filesystem types to check

           fsck.minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

           Check MINIX filesystem


                   -l      List all filenames
                   -r      Perform interactive repairs
                   -a      Perform automatic repairs
                   -v      Verbose
                   -s      Output superblock information
                   -m      Show "mode not cleared" warnings
                   -f      Force file system check

           fsync      [OPTIONS] FILE...

           Write files' buffered blocks to disk


                   -d      Avoid syncing metadata

           ftpd       [-wvS] [-t N] [-T N] [DIR]

           FTP server

           ftpd should be used as an inetd service.  ftpd's line for

                   21 stream tcp nowait root ftpd ftpd /files/to/serve
           It also can be ran from tcpsvd:

                   tcpsvd -vE 21 ftpd /files/to/serve


                   -w      Allow upload
                   -v      Log to stderr
                   -S      Log to syslog
                   -t,-T   Idle and absolute timeouts
                   DIR     Change root to this directory


           Retrieve a remote file via FTP


                   -c,--continue   Continue previous transfer
                   -v,--verbose    Verbose
                   -u,--username   Username
                   -p,--password   Password
                   -P,--port       Port number


           Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP


                   -v,--verbose    Verbose
                   -u,--username   Username
                   -p,--password   Password
                   -P,--port       Port number

           fuser      [OPTIONS] FILE or PORT/PROTO

           Find processes which use FILEs or PORTs


                   -m      Find processes which use same fs as FILEs
                   -4      Search only IPv4 space
                   -6      Search only IPv6 space
                   -s      Silent: just exit with 0 if any processes are found
                   -k      Kill found processes (otherwise display PIDs)
                   -SIGNAL Signal to send (default: TERM)

           getenforce #define getenforce_full_usage

           getopt     [OPTIONS]

           Parse options

                   -a,--alternative                Allow long options starting with single -
                   -l,--longoptions=longopts       Long options to be recognized
                   -n,--name=progname              The name under which errors are reported
                   -o,--options=optstring          Short options to be recognized
                   -q,--quiet                      Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
                   -Q,--quiet-output               No normal output
                   -s,--shell=shell                Set shell quoting conventions
                   -T,--test                       Test for getopt(1) version
                   -u,--unquoted                   Don't quote the output


                   $ cat getopt.test
                   GETOPT=`getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: \
                          -n 'example.busybox' -- "$@"`
                   if [ $? != 0 ]; then  exit 1; fi
                   eval set -- "$GETOPT"
                   while true; do
                    case $1 in
                      -a|--a-long) echo "Option a"; shift;;
                      -b|--b-long) echo "Option b, argument '$2'"; shift 2;;
                        case "$2" in
                          "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2;;
                          *)  echo "Option c, argument '$2'"; shift 2;;
                      --) shift; break;;
                      *) echo "Internal error!"; exit 1;;

           getsebool  -a or getsebool boolean...

                   -a      Show all SELinux booleans

           getty      [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE TTY [TERMTYPE]

           Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login


                   -h              Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control
                   -i              Do not display /etc/issue before running login
                   -L              Local line, do not do carrier detect
                   -m              Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
                   -w              Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
                   -n              Do not prompt the user for a login name
                   -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue
                   -l login_app    Invoke login_app instead of /bin/login
                   -t timeout      Terminate after timeout if no username is read
                   -I initstring   Init string to send before anything else
                   -H login_host   Log login_host into the utmp file as the hostname

           grep       [-HhrilLnqvsoweFEABCz] PATTERN [FILE]...

           Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input


                   -H      Prefix output lines with filename where match was found
                   -h      Suppress the prefixing filename on output
                   -r      Recurse subdirectories
                   -i      Ignore case distinctions
                   -l      List names of files that match
                   -L      List names of files that do not match
                   -n      Print line number with output lines
                   -q      Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
                   -v      Select non-matching lines
                   -s      Suppress file open/read error messages
                   -c      Only print count of matching lines
                   -o      Show only the part of a line that matches PATTERN
                   -m MAX  Match up to MAX times per file
                   -w      Match whole words only
                   -F      PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings
                   -E      PATTERN is an extended regular expression
                   -e PTRN Pattern to match
                   -f FILE Read pattern from file
                   -A      Print NUM lines of trailing context
                   -B      Print NUM lines of leading context
                   -C      Print NUM lines of output context
                   -z      Input is NUL terminated


                   $ grep root /etc/passwd
                   $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd

           gunzip     [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Uncompress FILEs (or standard input)


                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force
                   -t      Test file integrity


                   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
                   $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
                   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar

           gzip       [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Compress FILEs (or standard input)


                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -d      Decompress
                   -f      Force


                   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar
                   $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar
                   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz

           halt       [-d delay] [-n] [-f] [-w]

           Halt the system


                   -d      Delay interval for halting
                   -n      No call to sync()
                   -f      Force halt (don't go through init)
                   -w      Only write a wtmp record

       hd  hd         FILE...

           hd is an alias for hexdump -C

           hdparm     [OPTIONS] [DEVICE]


                   -a      Get/set fs readahead
                   -A      Set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1)
                   -b      Get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate)
                   -B      Set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255)
                   -c      Get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting
                   -C      Check IDE power mode status
                   -d      Get/set using_dma flag
                   -D      Enable/disable drive defect-mgmt
                   -f      Flush buffer cache for device on exit
                   -g      Display drive geometry
                   -h      Display terse usage information
                   -i      Display drive identification
                   -I      Detailed/current information directly from drive
                   -k      Get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)
                   -K      Set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1)
                   -L      Set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only)
                   -m      Get/set multiple sector count
                   -n      Get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1)
                   -p      Set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...)
                   -P      Set drive prefetch count/*   "
                   -q      Change next setting quietly" - not supported ib bbox */
                   -Q      Get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported)
                   -r      Get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set)
                   -R      Register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
                   -S      Set standby (spindown) timeout
                   -t      Perform device read timings
                   -T      Perform cache read timings
                   -u      Get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1)
                   -U      Un-register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
                   -v      Defaults; same as -mcudkrag for IDE drives
                   -V      Display program version and exit immediately
                   -w      Perform device reset (DANGEROUS)
                   -W      Set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
                   -x      Tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
                   -X      Set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)
                   -y      Put IDE drive in standby mode
                   -Y      Put IDE drive to sleep
                   -Z      Disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode
                   -z      Re-read partition table

           head       [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
           than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.
           With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.


                   -n NUM  Print first NUM lines instead of first 10
                   -c NUM  Output the first NUM bytes
                   -q      Never output headers giving file names
                   -v      Always output headers giving file names


                   $ head -n 2 /etc/passwd

           hexdump    [-bcCdefnosvxR] FILE...

           Display file(s) or standard input in a user specified format


                   -b              One-byte octal display
                   -c              One-byte character display
                   -C              Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
                   -d              Two-byte decimal display
                   -e FORMAT STRING
                   -f FORMAT FILE
                   -n LENGTH       Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
                   -o              Two-byte octal display
                   -s OFFSET       Skip OFFSET bytes
                   -v              Display all input data
                   -x              Two-byte hexadecimal display
                   -R              Reverse of 'hexdump -Cv'


           Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine

           hostname   [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME | -F FILE]

           Get or set hostname or DNS domain name


                   -s      Short
                   -i      Addresses for the hostname
                   -d      DNS domain name
                   -f      Fully qualified domain name
                   -F FILE Use FILE's content as hostname


                   $ hostname

           httpd      [-ifv[v]] [-c CONFFILE] [-p [IP:]PORT] [-u USER[:GRP]]
           [-r REALM] [-h HOME] or httpd -d/-e/-m STRING

           Listen for incoming HTTP requests


                   -i              Inetd mode
                   -f              Do not daemonize
                   -v[v]           Verbose
                   -c FILE         Configuration file (default httpd.conf)
                   -p [IP:]PORT    Bind to ip:port (default *:80)
                   -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid/gid after binding to port
                   -r REALM        Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
                   -h HOME         Home directory (default .)
                   -m STRING       MD5 crypt STRING
                   -e STRING       HTML encode STRING
                   -d STRING       URL decode STRING

           hush       #define hush_full_usage

           hwclock         [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc]
           [-l|--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f FILE]

           Query and set hardware clock (RTC)


                   -r      Show hardware clock time
                   -s      Set system time from hardware clock
                   -w      Set hardware clock to system time
                   -u      Hardware clock is in UTC
                   -l      Hardware clock is in local time
                   -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)

       id  id         [OPTIONS] [USER]

           Print information about USER or the current user


                   -Z      Print the security context
                   -u      Print user ID
                   -g      Print group ID
                   -G      Print supplementary group IDs
                   -n      Print name instead of a number
                   -r      Print real user ID instead of effective ID


                   $ id
                   uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)

           ifconfig   [-a] interface [address]

           Configure a network interface


                   [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
                   [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
                   [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
                   [hw ether|infiniband ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
                   [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
                   [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
                   [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
                   [up|down] ...

           ifdown     [-ainmvf] ifaces...


                   -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
                   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
                   -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                           (note: doesn't disable mappings)
                   -m      Don't run any mappings
                   -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
                   -f      Force de/configuration

           ifenslave  [-cdf] master-iface <slave-iface...>

           Configure network interfaces for parallel routing


                   -c, --change-active     Change active slave
                   -d, --detach            Remove slave interface from bonding device
                   -f, --force             Force, even if interface is not Ethernet/*   "
                   -r, --receive-slave     Create a receive-only slave" */


                   To create a bond device, simply follow these three steps:
                   - ensure that the required drivers are properly loaded:
                     # modprobe bonding ; modprobe <3c59x|eepro100|pcnet32|tulip|...>
                   - assign an IP address to the bond device:
                     # ifconfig bond0 <addr> netmask <mask> broadcast <bcast>
                   - attach all the interfaces you need to the bond device:
                     # ifenslave bond0 eth0 eth1 eth2
                     If bond0 didn't have a MAC address, it will take eth0's. Then, all
                     interfaces attached AFTER this assignment will get the same MAC addr.

                     To detach a dead interface without setting the bond device down:
                     # ifenslave -d bond0 eth1

                     To set the bond device down and automatically release all the slaves:
                     # ifconfig bond0 down

                     To change active slave:
                     # ifenslave -c bond0 eth0

           ifplugd    [OPTIONS]

           Network interface plug detection daemon.


                   -n              Do not daemonize
                   -s              Do not log to syslog
                   -i IFACE        Interface
                   -f/-F           Treat link detection error as link down/link up
                                   (otherwise exit on error)
                   -a              Do not up interface automatically
                   -M              Monitor creation/destruction of interface
                                   (otherwise it must exist)
                   -r PROG         Script to run
                   -x ARG          Extra argument for script
                   -I              Don't exit on nonzero exit code from script
                   -p              Don't run script on daemon startup
                   -q              Don't run script on daemon quit
                   -l              Run script on startup even if no cable is detected
                   -t SECS         Poll time in seconds
                   -u SECS         Delay before running script after link up
                   -d SECS         Delay after link down
                   -m MODE         API mode (mii, priv, ethtool, wlan, auto)
                   -k              Kill running daemon

           ifup       [-ainmvf] ifaces...


                   -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
                   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
                   -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                           (note: doesn't disable mappings)
                   -m      Don't run any mappings
                   -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
                   -f      Force de/configuration

           inetd      [-fe] [-q N] [-R N] [CONFFILE]

           Listen for network connections and launch programs


                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -e      Log to stderr
                   -q N    Socket listen queue (default: 128)
                   -R N    Pause services after N connects/min
                           (default: 0 - disabled)


           Init is the parent of all processes

           This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel.

           BusyBox init doesn't support multiple runlevels. The runlevels
           field of the /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox
           init. If you want runlevels, use sysvinit.

           BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab. If no inittab is
           found, it has the following default behavior:

                   ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a
                   ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r

           if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will
           also run:


           If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format
           is as follows:



                           WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init!
                           The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for
                           the specified process to run on. The contents of this field are
                           appended to "/dev/" and used as-is. There is no need for this field to
                           be unique, although if it isn't you may have strange results. If this
                           field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console. Also
                           note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only
                           entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null
                           will be run. BusyBox init does nothing with utmp. We don't need no
                           stinkin' utmp.


                           The runlevels field is completely ignored.


                           Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait,
                           once, restart, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown.

                           The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions
                           that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified
                           process exits.

                           Run only-once actions:

                                   'sysinit' is the first item run on boot. init waits until all
                                   sysinit actions are completed before continuing. Following the
                                   completion of all sysinit actions, all 'wait' actions are run.
                                   'wait' actions, like 'sysinit' actions, cause init to wait until
                                   the specified task completes. 'once' actions are asynchronous,
                                   therefore, init does not wait for them to complete. 'restart' is
                                   the action taken to restart the init process. By default this should
                                   simply run /sbin/init, but can be a script which runs pivot_root or it
                                   can do all sorts of other interesting things. The 'ctrlaltdel' init
                                   actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system
                                   console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination. Typically one
                                   wants to run 'reboot' at this point to cause the system to reboot.
                                   Finally the 'shutdown' action specifies the actions to taken when
                                   init is told to reboot. Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap
                                   is a very good here.

                           Run repeatedly actions:

                                   'respawn' actions are run after the 'once' actions. When a process
                                   started with a 'respawn' action exits, init automatically restarts
                                   it. Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from
                                   respawning out of control. The 'askfirst' actions acts just like
                                   respawn, except that before running the specified process it
                                   displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console."
                                   and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the
                                   specified process.

                           Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an
                           error message, and then go along with its business. All actions are
                           run in the order they appear in /etc/inittab.


                           Specifies the process to be executed and its command line.

           Example /etc/inittab file:

                   # This is run first except when booting in single-user mode

                   # /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys
                   # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be)
                   # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4

                   # /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys
                   tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4
                   tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5

                   # Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal)
                   #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100
                   #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100
                   # Example how to put a getty on a modem line
                   #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2

                   # Stuff to do when restarting the init process

                   # Stuff to do before rebooting
                   ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r
                   ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a

           inotifyd   PROG FILE1[:MASK] ...

           Run PROG on filesystem changes.  When a filesystem event matching
           MASK occurs on FILEn, PROG <actual_event(s)> <FILEn>
           [<subfile_name>] is run.  Events:

                   a       File is accessed
                   c       File is modified
                   e       Metadata changed
                   w       Writtable file is closed
                   0       Unwrittable file is closed
                   r       File is opened
                   D       File is deleted
                   M       File is moved
                   u       Backing fs is unmounted
                   o       Event queue overflowed
                   x       File can't be watched anymore
           If watching a directory:

                   m       Subfile is moved into dir
                   y       Subfile is moved out of dir
                   n       Subfile is created
                   d       Subfile is deleted

           inotifyd waits for PROG to exit.  When x event happens for all
           FILEs, inotifyd exits

           insmod     [OPTIONS] MODULE [symbol=value]...

           Load the specified kernel modules into the kernel


                   -f      Force module to load into the wrong kernel version
                   -k      Make module autoclean-able
                   -v      Verbose
                   -q      Quiet
                   -L      Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module
                   -m      Output load map to stdout
                   -o NAME Set internal module name to NAME
                   -x      Do not export externs

           install    [-cdDsp] [-o USER] [-g GRP] [-m MODE] [source]

           Copy files and set attributes


                   -c      Just copy (default)
                   -d      Create directories
                   -D      Create leading target directories
                   -s      Strip symbol table
                   -p      Preserve date
                   -o USER Set ownership
                   -g GRP  Set group ownership
                   -m MODE Set permissions
                   -Z      Set security context

           ionice     [-c 1-3] [-n 0-7] [-p PID] [PROG]

           Change I/O scheduling class and priority


                   -c      Class. 1:realtime 2:best-effort 3:idle
                   -n      Priority

       ip  ip         [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule}

           ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT {COMMAND} where OBJECT := {address | route |
           link | tunnel | rule} OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link
           } | -o[neline] }

           ipaddr     { {add|del} IFADDR dev STRING | {show|flush}
                     [dev STRING] [to PREFIX] }

           ipaddr {add|delete} IFADDR dev STRING ipaddr {show|flush} [dev
           STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]

                   [to PREFIX] [label PATTERN]
                   IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX
                   [broadcast ADDR] [anycast ADDR]
                   [label STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]
                   SCOPE-ID := [host | link | global | NUMBER]

           ipcalc     [OPTIONS] ADDRESS[[/]NETMASK] [NETMASK]

           Calculate IP network settings from a IP address


                   -b,--broadcast  Display calculated broadcast address
                   -n,--network    Display calculated network address
                   -m,--netmask    Display default netmask for IP
                   -p,--prefix     Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
                   -h,--hostname   Display first resolved host name
                   -s,--silent     Don't ever display error messages               )

           ipcrm      [-MQS key] [-mqs id]

           Upper-case options MQS remove an object by shmkey value.  Lower-
           case options remove an object by shmid value.


                   -mM     Remove memory segment after last detach
                   -qQ     Remove message queue
                   -sS     Remove semaphore

           ipcs       [[-smq] -i shmid] | [[-asmq] [-tcplu]]

                   -i      Show specific resource
           Resource specification:

                   -m      Shared memory segments
                   -q      Message queues
                   -s      Semaphore arrays
                   -a      All (default)
           Output format:

                   -t      Time
                   -c      Creator
                   -p      Pid
                   -l      Limits
                   -u      Summary


           iplink set DEVICE { up | down | arp | multicast { on | off } |

                                   dynamic { on | off } |
                                   mtu MTU }
           iplink show [DEVICE]

           iproute    { list | flush | { add | del | change | append |
                     replace | monitor } ROUTE }

           iproute { list | flush } SELECTOR iproute get ADDRESS [from ADDRESS
           iif STRING]

                                   [oif STRING]  [tos TOS]
           iproute { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE

                                   SELECTOR := [root PREFIX] [match PREFIX] [proto RTPROTO]
                                   ROUTE := [TYPE] PREFIX [tos TOS] [proto RTPROTO]
                                           [metric METRIC]

           iprule     {[list | add | del] RULE}

           iprule [list | add | del] SELECTOR ACTION

                   SELECTOR := [from PREFIX] [to PREFIX] [tos TOS] [fwmark FWMARK]
                                   [dev STRING] [pref NUMBER]
                   ACTION := [table TABLE_ID] [nat ADDRESS]
                                   [prohibit | reject | unreachable]
                                   [realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM]
                   TABLE_ID := [local | main | default | NUMBER]

           iptunnel   { add | change | del | show } [NAME]      [mode { ipip |
           gre | sit }]      [remote ADDR] [local ADDR] [ttl TTL]

           iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [NAME]

                   [mode { ipip | gre | sit }] [remote ADDR] [local ADDR]
                   [[i|o]seq] [[i|o]key KEY] [[i|o]csum]
                   [ttl TTL] [tos TOS] [[no]pmtudisc] [dev PHYS_DEV]

           kbd_mode   [-a|k|s|u] [-C TTY]

           Report or set the keyboard mode

           Options set mode:

                   -a      Default (ASCII)
                   -k      Medium-raw (keyboard)
                   -s      Raw (scancode)
                   -u      Unicode (utf-8)
                   -C TTY  Affect TTY instead of /dev/tty

           kill       [-l] [-SIG] PID...

           Send a signal (default is TERM) to given PIDs


                   -l      List all signal names and numbers/*   "
                   -s SIG  Yet another way of specifying SIG" */


                   $ ps | grep apache
                   252 root     root     S [apache]
                   263 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   264 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   265 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   266 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   267 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   $ kill 252

           killall    [-l] [-q] [-SIG] process-name...

           Send a signal (default is TERM) to given processes


                   -l      List all signal names and numbers/*   "
                   -s SIG  Yet another way of specifying SIG" */
                   -q      Do not complain if no processes were killed


                   $ killall apache

           killall5   [-l] [-SIG] [-o PID]...

           Send a signal (default is TERM) to all processes outside current


                   -l      List all signal names and numbers
                   -o PID  Do not signal this PID/*   "
                   -s SIG  Yet another way of specifying SIG" */

           klogd      [-c N] [-n]

           Kernel logger


                   -c N    Only messages with level < N are printed to console
                   -n      Run in foreground

           lash       #define lash_full_usage

           last       [-HW] [-f file]

           Show listing of the last users that logged into the system

           Options:/*   "

                   -H      Show header line" */
                   -W      Display with no host column truncation
                   -f file Read from file instead of /var/log/wtmp

           length     STRING

           Print STRING's length


                   $ length Hello

           less       [-EMNmh~I?] [FILE]...

           View a file or list of files. The position within files can be
           changed, and files can be manipulated in various ways.


                   -E      Quit once the end of a file is reached
                   -M,-m   Display a status line containing the line numbers
                           and percentage through the file
                   -N      Prefix line numbers to each line
                   -I      Ignore case in all searches
                   -~      Suppress ~s displayed past the end of the file

           linux32    #define linux32_full_usage

           linux64    #define linux64_full_usage

           linuxrc    #define linuxrc_full_usage

       ln  ln         [OPTIONS] TARGET... LINK_NAME|DIRECTORY

           Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET.
           Use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.


                   -s      Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
                   -f      Remove existing destination files
                   -n      Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
                   -b      Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
                   -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files


                   $ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls
                   $ ls -l /tmp/ls
                   lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox*

           load_policy #define load_policy_full_usage

           loadfont   < font

           Load a console font from standard input/*   "

                   -C TTY  Affect TTY instead of /dev/tty" */


                   $ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname

           loadkmap   < keymap

           Load a binary keyboard translation table from standard input /*   "

                   -C TTY  Affect TTY instead of /dev/tty" */


                   $ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap

           logger     [OPTIONS] [MESSAGE]

           Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.


                   -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log
                   -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
                   -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)


                   $ logger "hello"

           login      [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]

           Begin a new session on the system


                   -f      Do not authenticate (user already authenticated)
                   -h      Name of the remote host
                   -p      Preserve environment


           Print the name of the current user


                   $ logname

           logread    [OPTIONS]

           Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer


                   -f      Output data as log grows

           losetup    [-o OFS] LOOPDEV FILE - associate loop devices
                losetup -d LOOPDEV - disassociate      losetup [-f] - show


                   -o OFS  Start OFS bytes into FILE
                   -f      Show first free loop device

           No arguments will display all current associations.  One argument
           (losetup /dev/loop1) will display the current association (if any),
           or disassociate it (with -d). The display shows the offset and
           filename of the file the loop device is currently bound to.

           Two arguments (losetup /dev/loop1 file.img) create a new
           association, with an optional offset (-o 12345). Encryption is not
           yet supported.  losetup -f will show the first loop free loop

       lpd lpd        SPOOLDIR [HELPER [ARGS]]

           SPOOLDIR must contain (symlinks to) device nodes or directories
           with names matching print queue names. In the first case, jobs are
           sent directly to the device. Otherwise each job is stored in queue
           directory and HELPER program is called. Name of file to print is
           passed in $DATAFILE variable.  Example:

                   tcpsvd -E 0 515 softlimit -m 999999 lpd /var/spool ./print

       lpq lpq        [-P queue[@host[:port]]] [-U USERNAME] [-d JOBID...]


                   -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
                   -d      Delete jobs
                   -f      Force any waiting job to be printed
                   -s      Short display

       lpr lpr        -P queue[@host[:port]] -U USERNAME -J TITLE -Vmh


                   -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
                   -m      Send mail on completion
                   -h      Print banner page too
                   -V      Verbose

       ls  ls         [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhkK] [FILE]...

           List directory contents


                   -1      List in a single column
                   -A      Don't list . and ..
                   -a      Don't hide entries starting with .
                   -C      List by columns
                   -c      With -l: sort by ctime
                   --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring
                   -d      List directory entries instead of contents
                   -e      List full date and time
                   -F      Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
                   -i      List inode numbers
                   -l      Long listing format
                   -n      List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
                   -p      Append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
                   -L      List entries pointed to by symlinks
                   -R      List subdirectories recursively
                   -r      Sort in reverse order
                   -S      Sort by file size
                   -s      List the size of each file, in blocks
                   -T NUM  Assume tabstop every NUM columns
                   -t      With -l: sort by modification time
                   -u      With -l: sort by access time
                   -v      Sort by version
                   -w NUM  Assume the terminal is NUM columns wide
                   -x      List by lines
                   -X      Sort by extension
                   -h      List sizes in human readable format (1K 243M 2G)
                   -k      List security context
                   -K      List security context in long format
                   -Z      List security context and permission

           lsattr     [-Radlv] [FILE]...

           List file attributes on an ext2 fs


                   -R      Recursively list subdirectories
                   -a      Do not hide entries starting with .
                   -d      List directory entries instead of contents
                   -l      List long flag names
                   -v      List the file's version/generation number


           List the currently loaded kernel modules

           lzmacat    FILE

           Uncompress to stdout

           lzop       [-cfvd123456789CF] [FILE]...

                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force
                   -v      Verbose
                   -d      Decompress
                   -F      Don't store or verify checksum
                   -C      Also write checksum of compressed block
                   -1..9   Compression level

           lzopcat    [-vCF] [FILE]...

                   -v      Verbose
                   -F      Don't store or verify checksum

           makedevs   [-d device_table] rootdir

           Create a range of special files as specified in a device table.
           Device table entries take the form of: <type> <mode> <uid> <gid>
           <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count> Where name is the file name,
           type can be one of:

                   f       Regular file
                   d       Directory
                   c       Character device
                   b       Block device
                   p       Fifo (named pipe)
           uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the
           target file. The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to
           to device special files. A '-' may be used for blank entries.


                   For example:
                   <name>    <type> <mode><uid><gid><major><minor><start><inc><count>
                   /dev         d   755    0    0    -      -      -      -    -
                   /dev/console c   666    0    0    5      1      -      -    -
                   /dev/null    c   666    0    0    1      3      0      0    -
                   /dev/zero    c   666    0    0    1      5      0      0    -
                   /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      0      0      0    -
                   /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      1      1      1    15

                   Will Produce:

           makemime   [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Create multipart MIME-encoded message from FILEs.  /*     "Transfer
           encoding is base64, disposition is inline (not attachment) " */

                   -o FILE Output. Default: stdout
                   -a HDR  Add header. Examples:
                           "From:", "Date: `date -R`
                   -c CT   Content type. Default: text/plain
                   -C CS   Charset. Default: " CONFIG_FEATURE_MIME_CHARSET /*   "
                   -e ENC  Transfer encoding. Ignored. base64 is assumed" */

           Other options are silently ignored

       man man        [OPTIONS] [MANPAGE]...

           Format and display manual page


                   -a      Display all pages
                   -w      Show page locations

           matchpathcon [-n] [-N] [-f file_contexts_file] [-p prefix] [-V]

                   -n      Do not display path
                   -N      Do not use translations
                   -f      Use alternate file_context file
                   -p      Use prefix to speed translations
                   -V      Verify file context on disk matches defaults

           md5sum     [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
              or: md5sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]

           Print or check MD5 checksums


                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines


                   $ md5sum < busybox
                   $ md5sum busybox
                   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
                   $ md5sum -c -
                   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
                   busybox: OK

           mdev       [-s]

                   -s      Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot

           It can be run by kernel as a hotplug helper. To activate it:

            echo /bin/mdev >/proc/sys/kernel/hotplug
           It uses /etc/mdev.conf with lines
           [-]DEVNAME UID:GID PERM [>|=PATH] [@|$|*PROG]

                    The mdev config file contains lines that look like:
             hd[a-z][0-9]* 0:3 660

           That's device name (with regex match), uid:gid, and permissions.

           Optionally, that can be followed (on the same line) by a special
           character and a command line to run after creating/before deleting
           the corresponding device(s). The environment variable $MDEV
           indicates the active device node (which is useful if it's a regex
           match). For example:

             hdc root:cdrom 660  *ln -s $MDEV cdrom

           The special characters are @ (run after creating), $ (run before
           deleting), and * (run both after creating and before deleting). The
           commands run in the /dev directory, and use system() which calls

           Config file parsing stops on the first matching line. If no config
           entry is matched, devices are created with default 0:0 660. (Make
           the last line match .* to override this.)

           mesg       [y|n]

           Control write access to your terminal

                   y       Allow write access to your terminal
                   n       Disallow write access to your terminal

           microcom   [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY

           Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout


                   -d      Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
                           next byte to it
                   -t      Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
                   -s      Set serial line to SPEED
                   -X      Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin

           mkdir      [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...

           Create DIRECTORY


                   -m      Set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask
                   -p      No error if existing, make parent directories as needed
                   -Z      Set security context


                   $ mkdir /tmp/foo
                   $ mkdir /tmp/foo
                   /tmp/foo: File exists
                   $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz
                   /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory
                   $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz

           mke2fs     [-c|-l filename] [-b block-size] [-f fragment-size] [-g
           blocks-per-group] [-i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options]
           [-N number-of-inodes] [-n] [-m reserved-blocks-percentage] [-o
           creator-os] [-O feature[,...]] [-q] [r fs-revision-level] [-E
           extended-options] [-v] [-F] [-L volume-label] [-M
           last-mounted-directory] [-S] [-T filesystem-type] device

                   -b size         Block size in bytes
                   -c              Check for bad blocks before creating
                   -E opts         Set extended options
                   -f size         Fragment size in bytes
                   -F              Force (ignore sanity checks)
                   -g num          Number of blocks in a block group
                   -i ratio        The bytes/inode ratio
                   -j              Create a journal (ext3)
                   -J opts         Set journal options (size/device)
                   -l file         Read bad blocks list from file
                   -L lbl          Set the volume label
                   -m percent      Percent of fs blocks to reserve for admin
                   -M dir          Set last mounted directory
                   -n              Do not actually create anything
                   -N num          Number of inodes to create
                   -o os           Set the 'creator os' field
                   -O features     Dir_index/filetype/has_journal/journal_dev/sparse_super
                   -q              Quiet
                   -r rev          Set filesystem revision
                   -S              Write superblock and group descriptors only
                   -T fs-type      Set usage type (news/largefile/largefile4)
                   -v              Verbose

           mkfifo     [OPTIONS] name

           Create named pipe (identical to 'mknod name p')


                   -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)
                   -Z      Set security context

           mkfs.minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks]

           Make a MINIX filesystem


                   -c              Check device for bad blocks
                   -n [14|30]      Maximum length of filenames
                   -i INODES       Number of inodes for the filesystem
                   -l FILENAME     Read bad blocks list from FILENAME
                   -v              Make version 2 filesystem

           mkfs_vfat  [-v] [-n LABEL] FILE_OR_DEVICE [SIZE_IN_KB]

           Make a FAT32 filesystem

           Options:/*   "

                   -c      Check device for bad blocks" */
                   -v      Verbose/*   "
                   -I      Allow to use entire disk device (e.g. /dev/hda)" */
                   -n LBL  Volume label

           mknod      [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

           Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)


                   -m      Create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)
           TYPEs include:

                   b:      Make a block device
                   c or u: Make a character device
                   p:      Make a named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)
                   -Z      Set security context


                   $ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0
                   $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p

           mkpasswd   [OPTIONS] [PASSWORD] [SALT]

           Crypt the PASSWORD using crypt(3)


                   -P,--password-fd=NUM    Read password from fd NUM/*   "
                   -s,--stdin              Use stdin; like -P0" */
                   -m,--method=TYPE        Encryption method TYPE

           mkswap     DEVICE

           Prepare block device to be used as swap partition

           mktemp     [-dt] [-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]

           Create a temporary file with name based on TEMPLATE and print its
           name.  TEMPLATE must end with XXXXXX (e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX).


                   -d      Make a directory instead of a file/*   "
                   -q      Fail silently if an error occurs" - we ignore it */
                   -t      Generate a path rooted in temporary directory
                   -p DIR  Use DIR as a temporary directory (implies -t)

           For -t or -p, directory is chosen as follows: $TMPDIR if set, else
           -p DIR, else /tmp


                   $ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX
                   $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM
                   -rw-------    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

           modprobe   [-knqrsv] MODULE [symbol=value...]


                   -k      Make module autoclean-able
                   -n      Dry run
                   -q      Quiet
                   -r      Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean
                   -s      Report via syslog instead of stderr
                   -v      Verbose
                   -b      Apply blacklist to module names too

           modprobe can (un)load a stack of modules, passing each module
           options (when loading). modprobe uses a configuration file to
           determine what option(s) to pass each module it loads.

           The configuration file is searched (in this order):

               /etc/modprobe.conf (2.6 only)
               /etc/conf.modules (deprecated)

           They all have the same syntax (see below). If none is present, it
           is _not_ an error; each loaded module is then expected to load
           without options. Once a file is found, the others are tested for.

           /etc/modules.conf entry format:

             alias <alias_name> <mod_name>
               Makes it possible to modprobe alias_name, when there is no such module.
               It makes sense if your mod_name is long, or you want a more representative
               name for that module (eg. 'scsi' in place of 'aha7xxx').
               This makes it also possible to use a different set of options (below) for
               the module and the alias.
               A module can be aliased more than once.

             options <mod_name|alias_name> <symbol=value...>
               When loading module mod_name (or the module aliased by alias_name), pass
               the "symbol=value" pairs as option to that module.

           Sample /etc/modules.conf file:

             options tulip irq=3
             alias tulip tulip2
             options tulip2 irq=4 io=0x308

           Other functionality offered by 'classic' modprobe is not available
           in this implementation.

           If module options are present both in the config file, and on the
           command line, then the options from the command line will be passed
           to the module _after_ the options from the config file. That way,
           you can have defaults in the config file, and override them for a
           specific usage from the command line.


                   (with the above /etc/modules.conf):

                   $ modprobe tulip
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default option 'irq=3'

                   $ modprobe tulip irq=5
                      will load the module 'tulip' with option 'irq=5', thus overriding the default

                   $ modprobe tulip2
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308',
                      which are the default for alias 'tulip2'

                   $ modprobe tulip2 irq=8
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=8',
                      which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the option 'irq=8'

                      from the command line

                   $ modprobe tulip2 irq=2 io=0x210
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=4 io=0x210',
                      which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the options 'irq=2 io=0x210'

                      from the command line

           more       [FILE]...

           View FILE or standard input one screenful at a time


                   $ dmesg | more

           mount      [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o OPT,OPT]

           Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc be


                   -a              Mount all filesystems in fstab
                   -f              Update /etc/mtab, but don't mount
                   -i              Don't run mount helper
                   -n              Don't update /etc/mtab
                   -r              Read-only mount
                   -w              Read-write mount (default)
                   -t FSTYPE       Filesystem type
                   -O OPT          Mount only filesystems with option OPT (-a only)
           B<-o> OPT:

                   loop            Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
                   [a]sync         Writes are [a]synchronous
                   [no]atime       Disable/enable updates to inode access times
                   [no]diratime    Disable/enable atime updates to directories
                   [no]relatime    Disable/enable atime updates relative to modification time
                   [no]dev         (Dis)allow use of special device files
                   [no]exec        (Dis)allow use of executable files
                   [no]suid        (Dis)allow set-user-id-root programs
                   [r]shared       Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
                   [r]slave        Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
                   [r]private      Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
                   [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
                   bind            Bind a directory to an additional location
                   move            Relocate an existing mount point
                   remount         Remount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags
                   ro/rw           Read-only/read-write mount

           There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem
           You'll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems

           Returns 0 for success, number of failed mounts for -a, or errno for
           one mount.


                   $ mount
                   /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw)
                   proc on /proc type proc (rw)
                   devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)
                   $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro
                   $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop
                   $ mount cd_image.iso mydir

           mountpoint [-q] <[-dn] DIR | -x DEVICE>

           Check if the directory is a mountpoint


                   -q      Quiet
                   -d      Print major/minor device number of the filesystem
                   -n      Print device name of the filesystem
                   -x      Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice


                   $ mountpoint /proc
                   /proc is not a mountpoint
                   $ mountpoint /sys
                   /sys is a mountpoint

       msh msh        #define msh_full_usage

       mt  mt         [-f device] opcode value

           Control magnetic tape drive operation

           Available Opcodes:

           bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm
           fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension
           rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock
           weof wset

       mv  mv         [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST or: mv [OPTIONS] SOURCE...

           Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY


                   -f      Don't prompt before overwriting
                   -i      Interactive, prompt before overwrite


                   $ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar

           nameif     [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]

           Rename network interface while it in the down state


                   -c FILE         Use configuration file (default is /etc/mactab)
                   -s              Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility)
                   IFNAME MACADDR  new_interface_name interface_mac_address


                   $ nameif -s dmz0 00:A0:C9:8C:F6:3F
                   $ nameif -c /etc/my_mactab_file

       nc  nc         [OPTIONS] HOST PORT  - connect nc [OPTIONS] -l -p PORT
           [HOST] [PORT]  - listen


                   -e PROG         Run PROG after connect (must be last)
                   -l              Listen mode, for inbound connects
                   -n              Don't do DNS resolution
                   -s ADDR         Local address
                   -p PORT         Local port
                   -u              UDP mode
                   -v              Verbose
                   -w SEC          Timeout for connects and final net reads
                   -i SEC          Delay interval for lines sent" /* ", ports scanned" */
                   -o FILE         Hex dump traffic
                   -z              Zero-I/O mode (scanning)/*   "
                   -r              Randomize local and remote ports" */

                    To use netcat as a terminal emulator on a serial port:

           $ stty 115200 -F /dev/ttyS0 $ stty raw -echo -ctlecho && nc -f


                   $ nc 25
                   220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600
                   214-Commands supported:
                   214-    HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH
                   214     NOOP QUIT RSET HELP
                   221 foobar closing connection

           netstat    [-laentuwxrWp]

           Display networking information


                   -l      Display listening server sockets
                   -a      Display all sockets (default: connected)
                   -e      Display other/more information
                   -n      Don't resolve names
                   -t      Tcp sockets
                   -u      Udp sockets
                   -w      Raw sockets
                   -x      Unix sockets
                   -r      Display routing table
                   -W      Display with no column truncation
                   -p      Display PID/Program name for sockets

           nice       [-n ADJUST] [PROG [ARGS]]

           Run PROG with modified scheduling priority


                   -n ADJUST       Adjust priority by ADJUST

           nmeter     format_string

           Monitor system in real time

           Format specifiers: %Nc or %[cN]   Monitor CPU. N - bar size,
           default 10

                           (displays: S:system U:user N:niced D:iowait I:irq i:softirq)
           %[niface]       Monitor network interface 'iface'
           %m              Monitor allocated memory
           %[mf]           Monitor free memory
           %[mt]           Monitor total memory
           %s              Monitor allocated swap
           %f              Monitor number of used file descriptors
           %Ni             Monitor total/specific IRQ rate
           %x              Monitor context switch rate
           %p              Monitor forks
           %[pn]           Monitor # of processes
           %b              Monitor block io
           %Nt             Show time (with N decimal points)
           %Nd             Milliseconds between updates (default:1000)
           %r              Print <cr> instead of <lf> at EOL


                   nmeter '%250d%t %20c int %i bio %b mem %m forks%p'

           nohup      PROG [ARGS]

           Run PROG immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty


                   $ nohup make &

           nslookup   [HOST] [SERVER]

           Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST
           optionally using a specified DNS server


                   $ nslookup localhost
                   Server:     default
                   Address:    default

                   Name:       debian

       od  od         [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [-t TYPE] [FILE]

           Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of
           FILE to standard output. With no FILE or when FILE is -, read
           standard input.

           openvt     [-c N] [-sw] [PROG [ARGS]]

           Start PROG on a new virtual terminal


                   -c N    Use specified VT
                   -s      Switch to the VT/*   "
                   -l      Run PROG as login shell (by prepending '-')" */
                   -w      Wait for PROG to exit


                   openvt 2 /bin/ash

           parse      [-n maxtokens] [-m mintokens] [-d delims] [-f flags]
           file ...

           [-n maxtokens] [-m mintokens] [-d delims] [-f flags] file ...

           passwd     [OPTIONS] [USER]

           Change USER's password. If no USER is specified, changes the
           password for the current user.


                   -a      Algorithm to use for password (choices: des, md5)" /* ", sha1)" */
                   -d      Delete password for the account
                   -l      Lock (disable) account
                   -u      Unlock (re-enable) account

           patch      [-p NUM] [-i DIFF] [-R] [-N]

                   -p NUM  Strip NUM leading components from file names
                   -i DIFF Read DIFF instead of stdin
                   -R      Reverse patch
                   -N      Ignore already applied patches


                   $ patch -p1 < example.diff
                   $ patch -p0 -i example.diff

           pgrep      [-flnovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]

           Display process(es) selected by regex PATTERN


                   -l      Show command name too
                   -f      Match against entire command line
                   -n      Show the newest process only
                   -o      Show the oldest process only
                   -v      Negate the match
                   -x      Match whole name (not substring)
                   -s      Match session ID (0 for current)
                   -P      Match parent process ID

           pidof      [NAME...]

           List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs USAGE_PIDOF

                   -s      Show only one PID
                   -o PID  Omit given pid
                           Use %PPID to omit pid of pidof's parent


                   $ pidof init
                   $ pidof /bin/sh
                   20351 5973 5950
                   $ pidof /bin/sh -o %PPID
                   20351 5950

           ping       [OPTIONS] HOST

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts


                   -4, -6          Force IPv4 or IPv6 hostname resolution
                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
                   -I IFACE/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -W SEC          Seconds to wait for the first response (default:10)
                                   (after all -c CNT packets are sent)
                   -w SEC          Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
                                   (can exit earlier with -c CNT)
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished


                   $ ping localhost
                   PING slag ( 56 data bytes
                   64 bytes from icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=20.1 ms

                   --- debian ping statistics ---
                   1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
                   round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

           ping6      [OPTIONS] HOST

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts


                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
                   -I IFACE/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished


                   $ ping6 ip6-localhost
                   PING ip6-localhost (::1): 56 data bytes
                   64 bytes from ::1: icmp6_seq=0 ttl=64 time=20.1 ms

                   --- ip6-localhost ping statistics ---
                   1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
                   round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

           pipe_progress #define pipe_progress_full_usage

           pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

           Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the
           new root file system

           pkill      [-l|-SIGNAL] [-fnovx] [-s SID|-P PPID|PATTERN]

           Send a signal to process(es) selected by regex PATTERN


                   -l      List all signals
                   -f      Match against entire command line
                   -n      Signal the newest process only
                   -o      Signal the oldest process only
                   -v      Negate the match
                   -x      Match whole name (not substring)
                   -s      Match session ID (0 for current)
                   -P      Match parent process ID

           popmaildir [OPTIONS] Maildir [connection-helper ...]

           Fetch content of remote mailbox to local maildir


                   -b              Binary mode. Ignored
                   -d              Debug. Ignored
                   -m              Show used memory. Ignored
                   -V              Show version. Ignored
                   -c              Use tcpclient. Ignored
                   -a              Use APOP protocol. Implied. If server supports APOP -> use it
                   -s              Skip authorization
                   -T              Get messages with TOP instead with RETR
                   -k              Keep retrieved messages on the server
                   -t timeout      Set network timeout
                   -F "program arg1 arg2 ..."      Filter by program. May be multiple
                   -M "program arg1 arg2 ..."      Deliver by program
                   -R size         Remove old messages on the server >= size (in bytes). Ignored
                   -Z N1-N2        Remove messages from N1 to N2 (dangerous). Ignored
                   -L size         Do not retrieve new messages >= size (in bytes). Ignored
                   -H lines        Type specified number of lines of a message. Ignored


                   $ popmaildir -k ~/Maildir -- nc 110 [<password_file]
                   $ popmaildir ~/Maildir -- openssl s_client -quiet -connect [<password_file]

           poweroff   [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

           Halt and shut off power


                   -d      Delay interval for halting
                   -n      No call to sync()
                   -f      Force power off (don't go through init)

           printenv   [VARIABLES...]

           Print all or part of environment.  If no environment VARIABLE
           specified, print them all.

           printf     FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]

           Format and print ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, where FORMAT
           controls the output exactly as in C printf


                   $ printf "Val=%d\n" 5

       ps  ps

           Report process status

                   -Z      Show SE Linux context
                   w       Wide output


                   $ ps
                     PID  Uid      Gid State Command
                       1 root     root     S init
                       2 root     root     S [kflushd]
                       3 root     root     S [kupdate]
                       4 root     root     S [kpiod]
                       5 root     root     S [kswapd]
                     742 andersen andersen S [bash]
                     743 andersen andersen S -bash
                     745 root     root     S [getty]
                    2990 andersen andersen R ps

           pscan      [-cb] [-p MIN_PORT] [-P MAX_PORT] [-t TIMEOUT] [-T
           MIN_RTT] HOST

           Scan a host, print all open ports


                   -c      Show closed ports too
                   -b      Show blocked ports too
                   -p      Scan from this port (default 1)
                   -P      Scan up to this port (default 1024)
                   -t      Timeout (default 5000 ms)
                   -T      Minimum rtt (default 5 ms, increase for congested hosts)

       pwd pwd

           Print the full filename of the current working directory


                   $ pwd

           raidautorun DEVICE

           Tell the kernel to automatically search and start RAID arrays


                   $ raidautorun /dev/md0

           rdate      [-sp] HOST

           Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST


                   -s      Set the system date and time (default)
                   -p      Print the date and time


           Print the device node associated with the filesystem mounted at '/'


                   $ rdev
                   /dev/mtdblock9 /

           readahead  [FILE]...

           Preload FILE(s) in RAM cache so that subsequent reads for
           thosefiles do not block on disk I/O

           readlink   [-fnv] FILE

           Display the value of a symlink


                   -f      Canonicalize by following all symlinks
                   -n      Don't add newline
                   -v      Verbose

           readprofile [OPTIONS]


                   -m mapfile      (Default: /boot/
                   -p profile      (Default: /proc/profile)
                   -M mult         Set the profiling multiplier to mult
                   -i              Print only info about the sampling step
                   -v              Verbose
                   -a              Print all symbols, even if count is 0
                   -b              Print individual histogram-bin counts
                   -s              Print individual counters within functions
                   -r              Reset all the counters (root only)
                   -n              Disable byte order auto-detection

           realpath   pathname...

           Return the absolute pathnames of given argument

           reboot     [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

           Reboot the system


                   -d      Delay interval for rebooting
                   -n      No call to sync()
                   -f      Force reboot (don't go through init)

           reformime  [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Parse MIME-encoded message


                   -x prefix       Extract content of MIME sections to files
                   -X prog [args]  Filter content of MIME sections through prog.
                                   Must be the last option

           Other options are silently ignored.

           renice     {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]

           Change priority of running processes


                   -n      Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
                   -p      Process id(s) (default)
                   -g      Process group id(s)
                   -u      Process user name(s) and/or id(s)


           Reset the screen


           Resize the screen

           restorecon [-iFnrRv] [-e excludedir]... [-o filename] [-f filename
           | pathname]

           Reset security contexts of files in pathname

                   -i              Ignore files that do not exist
                   -f file         File with list of files to process. Use - for stdin
                   -e directory    Directory to exclude
                   -R,-r           Recurse directories
                   -n              Don't change any file labels
                   -o file         Save list of files with incorrect context
                   -v              Verbose
                   -vv             Show changed labels
                   -F              Force reset of context to match file_context
                                   for customizable files, or the user section,
                                   if it has changed

       rm  rm         [OPTIONS] FILE...

           Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). Use '--' to indicate that all
           following arguments are non-options.


                   -i      Always prompt before removing
                   -f      Never prompt
                   -r,-R   Remove directories recursively


                   $ rm -rf /tmp/foo

           rmdir      [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...

           Remove the DIRECTORY, if it is empty.


                   -p|--parents    Include parents


                   # rmdir /tmp/foo

           rmmod      [OPTIONS] [MODULE]...

           Unload the specified kernel modules from the kernel


                   -w      Wait until the module is no longer used
                   -f      Force unloading
                   -a      Remove all unused modules (recursively)


                   $ rmmod tulip

           route      [{add|del|delete}]

           Edit kernel routing tables


                   -n      Don't resolve names
                   -e      Display other/more information
                   -A inet{6}      Select address family

       rpm rpm        -i -q[ildc]p package.rpm

           Manipulate RPM packages


                   -i      Install package
                   -q      Query package
                   -p      Query uninstalled package
                   -i      Show information
                   -l      List contents
                   -d      List documents
                   -c      List config files

           rpm2cpio   package.rpm

           Output a cpio archive of the rpm file

           rtcwake    [-a | -l | -u] [-d DEV] [-m MODE] [-s SEC | -t TIME]

           Enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time

                   -a,--auto       Read clock mode from adjtime
                   -l,--local      Clock is set to local time
                   -u,--utc        Clock is set to UTC time
                   -d,--device=DEV Specify the RTC device
                   -m,--mode=MODE  Set the sleep state (default: standby)
                   -s,--seconds=SEC Set the timeout in SEC seconds from now
                   -t,--time=TIME  Set the timeout to TIME seconds from epoch

           run-parts  [-t] [-l] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

           Run a bunch of scripts in a directory


                   -t      Print what would be run, but don't actually run anything
                   -a ARG  Pass ARG as argument for every program
                   -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before running every program
                   -l      Print names of all matching files even if they are not executable


                   $ run-parts -a start /etc/init.d
                   $ run-parts -a stop=now /etc/init.d

                   Let's assume you have a script foo/dosomething:
                   for i in $*; do eval $i; done; unset i
                   case "$1" in
                   start*) echo starting something;;
                   stop*) set -x; shutdown -h $stop;;

                   Running this yields:
                   $run-parts -a stop=+4m foo/
                   + shutdown -h +4m

           runcon     [-c] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-t TYPE] [-l RANGE] PROG
           [ARGS]      runcon CONTEXT PROG [ARGS]

           Run PROG in a different security context

                   CONTEXT         Complete security context

                   -c,--compute    Compute process transition context before modifying
                   -t,--type=TYPE  Type (for same role as parent)
                   -u,--user=USER  User identity
                   -r,--role=ROLE  Role
                   -l,--range=RNG  Levelrange

           runlevel   [utmp]


                   $ runlevel /var/run/utmp
                   N 2

           runsv      dir

           Start and monitor a service and optionally an appendant log service

           runsvdir   [-P] [-s SCRIPT] dir

           Start a runsv process for each subdirectory. If it exits, restart

                   -P              Put each runsv in a new session
                   -s SCRIPT       Run SCRIPT <signo> after signal is processed

       rx  rx         FILE

           Receive a file using the xmodem protocol


                   $ rx /tmp/foo

           script     [-afqt] [-c PROG] [OUTFILE]


                   -a      Append output
                   -c      Run PROG, not shell
                   -f      Flush output after each write
                   -q      Quiet
                   -t      Send timing to stderr

           scriptreplay timingfile [typescript [divisor]]

           Play back typescripts, using timing information

       sed sed        [-efinr] SED_CMD [FILE]...


                   -e CMD  Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
                   -f FILE Add FILE contents to sed commands to be executed
                   -i      Edit files in-place
                   -n      Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
                   -r      Use extended regex syntax

           If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as
           the sed command to interpret. All remaining arguments are names of
           input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard
           input is read. Source files will not be modified unless -i option
           is given.


                   $ echo "foo" | sed -e 's/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g'

           selinuxenabled #define selinuxenabled_full_usage

           sendmail   [OPTIONS] [RECIPIENT_EMAIL]...

           Read email from stdin and send it

           Standard options:

                   -t              Read additional recipients from message body
                   -f sender       Sender (required)
                   -o options      Various options. -oi implied, others are ignored

           Busybox specific options:

                   -w seconds      Network timeout
                   -H 'PROG ARGS'  Run connection helper
                                   -H 'exec openssl s_client -quiet -tls1 -starttls smtp
                                           -connect' <email.txt
                                           [4<username_and_passwd.txt | -au<username> -ap<password>]
                                   -H 'exec openssl s_client -quiet -tls1
                                           -connect' <email.txt
                                           [4<username_and_passwd.txt | -au<username> -ap<password>]
                   -S server[:port] Server
                   -au<username>   Username for AUTH LOGIN
                   -ap<password>   Password for AUTH LOGIN
                   -am<method>     Authentication method. Ignored. LOGIN is implied

           Other options are silently ignored; -oi -t is implied Use makemime
           applet to create message with attachments

       seq seq        [-w] [-s SEP] [FIRST [INC]] LAST

           Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INC.  FIRST, INC
           default to 1


                   -w      Pad to last with leading zeros
                   -s SEP  String separator

           sestatus   [-vb]

                   -v      Verbose
                   -b      Display current state of booleans

           setarch    personality program [args...]

           Personality may be:

                   linux32         Set 32bit uname emulation
                   linux64         Set 64bit uname emulation

           setconsole [-r|--reset] [DEVICE]

           Redirect system console output to DEVICE (default: /dev/tty)


                   -r      Reset output to /dev/console

           setenforce [Enforcing | Permissive | 1 | 0]

           setfiles   [-dnpqsvW] [-e dir]... [-o file] [-r alt_root_path] [-c
           policyfile] spec_file pathname

           Reset file contexts under pathname according to spec_file

                   -c file Check the validity of the contexts against the specified binary policy
                   -d      Show which specification matched each file
                   -l      Log changes in file labels to syslog
                   -n      Don't change any file labels
                   -q      Suppress warnings
                   -r dir  Use an altenate root path
                   -e dir  Exclude directory
                   -F      Force reset of context to match file_context for customizable files
                   -o file Save list of files with incorrect context
                   -s      Take a list of files from standard input (instead of command line)
                   -v      Show changes in file labels, if type or role are changing
                   -vv     Show changes in file labels, if type, role, or user are changing
                   -W      Display warnings about entries that had no matching files

           setfont    FONT [-m MAPFILE] [-C TTY]

           Load a console font


                   -m MAPFILE      Load console screen map
                   -C TTY          Affect TTY instead of /dev/tty


                   $ setfont -m koi8-r /etc/i18n/fontname

           setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE...

           Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing
           unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

           SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is
           given in decimal


                   $ setkeycodes e030 127

           setlogcons N

           Redirect the kernel output to console N (0 for current)

           setsebool  boolean value

           Change boolean setting

           setsid     PROG [ARG...]

           Run PROG in a new session. PROG will have no controlling terminal
           and will not be affected by keyboard signals (Ctrl-C etc).  See
           setsid(2) for details.

           setuidgid  account prog args

           Set uid and gid to account's uid and gid, removing all
           supplementary groups and run PROG

       sh  sh         #define sh_full_usage

           sha1sum    [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
              or: sha1sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]

           Print or check SHA1 checksums.


                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

           sha256sum  [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
              or: sha256sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]

           Print or check SHA1 checksums.


                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

           sha512sum  [OPTIONS] [FILE]...
              or: sha512sum [OPTIONS] -c [FILE]

           Print or check SHA1 checksums.


                   -c      Check sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

           showkey    [-a | -k | -s]

           Show keys pressed


                   -a      Display decimal/octal/hex values of the keys
                   -k      Display interpreted keycodes (default)
                   -s      Display raw scan-codes

           slattach   [-cehmLF] [-s SPEED] [-p PROTOCOL] DEVICE

           Attach network interface(s) to serial line(s)


                   -p PROT Set protocol (slip, cslip, slip6, clisp6 or adaptive)
                   -s SPD  Set line speed
                   -e      Exit after initializing device
                   -h      Exit when the carrier is lost
                   -c PROG Run PROG when the line is hung up
                   -m      Do NOT initialize the line in raw 8 bits mode
                   -L      Enable 3-wire operation
                   -F      Disable RTS/CTS flow control

           sleep      [N]...

                            Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can
           have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays


                   $ sleep 2
                   [2 second delay results]
                   $ sleep 1d 3h 22m 8s
                   [98528 second delay results]

           softlimit  [-a BYTES] [-m BYTES] [-d BYTES] [-s BYTES] [-l BYTES]
                [-f BYTES] [-c BYTES] [-r BYTES] [-o N] [-p N] [-t N]
                PROG ARGS

           Set soft resource limits, then run PROG


                   -a BYTES        Limit total size of all segments
                   -m BYTES        Same as -d BYTES -s BYTES -l BYTES -a BYTES
                   -d BYTES        Limit data segment
                   -s BYTES        Limit stack segment
                   -l BYTES        Limit locked memory size
                   -o N            Limit number of open files per process
                   -p N            Limit number of processes per uid
           Options controlling file sizes:

                   -f BYTES        Limit output file sizes
                   -c BYTES        Limit core file size
           Efficiency opts:

                   -r BYTES        Limit resident set size
                   -t N            Limit CPU time, process receives
                                   a SIGXCPU after N seconds

           sort       [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o FILE] [-k
           start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t CHAR] [FILE]...

           Sort lines of text


                   -b      Ignore leading blanks
                   -c      Check whether input is sorted
                   -d      Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
                   -f      Ignore case
                   -g      General numerical sort
                   -i      Ignore unprintable characters
                   -k      Sort key
                   -M      Sort month
                   -n      Sort numbers
                   -o      Output to file
                   -k      Sort by key
                   -t CHAR Key separator
                   -r      Reverse sort order
                   -s      Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
                   -u      Suppress duplicate lines
                   -z      Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
                   -mST    Ignored for GNU compatibility


                   $ echo -e "e\nf\nb\nd\nc\na" | sort
                   $ echo -e "c 3\nb 2\nd 2" | $SORT -k 2,2n -k 1,1r
                   d 2
                   b 2
                   c 3

           split      [OPTIONS] [INPUT [PREFIX]]


                   -b n[k|m]       Split by bytes
                   -l n            Split by lines
                   -a n            Use n letters as suffix


                   $ split TODO foo
                   $ cat TODO | split -a 2 -l 2 TODO_

           start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [-S|-K] ... [-- arguments...]

           Search for matching processes, and then -K: stop all matching
           processes.  -S: start a process unless a matching process is found.

           Process matching:

                   -u,--user USERNAME|UID  Match only this user's processes
                   -n,--name NAME          Match processes with NAME
                                           in comm field in /proc/PID/stat
                   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Match processes with this command
                                           in /proc/PID/cmdline
                   -p,--pidfile FILE       Match a process with PID from the file
                   All specified conditions must match
           B<-S> only:

                   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Program to run
                   -a,--startas NAME       Zeroth argument
                   -b,--background         Background
                   -N,--nicelevel N        Change nice level
                   -c,--chuid USER[:[GRP]] Change to user/group
                   -m,--make-pidfile       Write PID to the pidfile specified by -p
           B<-K> only:

                   -s,--signal SIG         Signal to send
                   -t,--test               Match only, exit with 0 if a process is found

                   -o,--oknodo             Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
                   -v,--verbose            Verbose
                   -q,--quiet              Quiet
                   -c USER[:[GRP]] Change to user/group
                   -m              Write PID to the pidfile specified by -p
           B<-K> only:

                   -s SIG          Signal to send
                   -t              Match only, exit with 0 if a process is found

                   -o              Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
                   -v              Verbose
                   -q              Quiet   )

           stat       [OPTIONS] FILE...

           Display file (default) or filesystem status


                   -c fmt  Use the specified format
                   -f      Display filesystem status
                   -L      Dereference links
                   -t      Display info in terse form
                   -Z      Print security context

           Valid format sequences for files:

            %a     Access rights in octal
            %A     Access rights in human readable form
            %b     Number of blocks allocated (see %B)
            %B     The size in bytes of each block reported by %b
            %d     Device number in decimal
            %D     Device number in hex
            %f     Raw mode in hex
            %F     File type
            %g     Group ID of owner
            %G     Group name of owner
            %h     Number of hard links
            %i     Inode number
            %n     File name
            %N     Quoted file name with dereference if symlink
            %o     I/O block size
            %s     Total size, in bytes
            %t     Major device type in hex
            %T     Minor device type in hex
            %u     User ID of owner
            %U     User name of owner
            %x     Time of last access
            %X     Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
            %y     Time of last modification
            %Y     Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
            %z     Time of last change
            %Z     Time of last change as seconds since Epoch

           Valid format sequences for file systems:

            %a     Free blocks available to non-superuser
            %b     Total data blocks in file system
            %c     Total file nodes in file system
            %d     Free file nodes in file system
            %f     Free blocks in file system
            %C     Security context in SELinux
            %i     File System ID in hex
            %l     Maximum length of filenames
            %n     File name
            %s     Block size (for faster transfer)
            %S     Fundamental block size (for block counts)
            %t     Type in hex
            %T     Type in human readable form

           static_sh  #define static_sh_full_usage

           strings    [-afo] [-n LEN] [FILE]...

           Display printable strings in a binary file


                   -a      Scan whole file (default)
                   -f      Precede strings with filenames
                   -n LEN  At least LEN characters form a string (default 4)
                   -o      Precede strings with decimal offsets

           stty       [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

           Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and
           deviations from stty sane


                   -F DEVICE       Open device instead of stdin
                   -a              Print all current settings in human-readable form
                   -g              Print in stty-readable form
                   [SETTING]       See manpage

       su  su         [OPTIONS] [-] [username]

           Change user id or become root


                   -p, -m  Preserve environment
                   -c CMD  Command to pass to 'sh -c'
                   -s SH   Shell to use instead of default shell

           sulogin    [OPTIONS] [TTY]

           Single user login


                   -t N    Timeout

       sum sum        [-rs] [FILE]...

           Checksum and count the blocks in a file


                   -r      Use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks)
                   -s      Use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks)

       sv  sv         [-v] [-w sec] command service...

           Control services monitored by runsv supervisor.  Commands (only
           first character is enough):

           status: query service status up: if service isn't running, start
           it. If service stops, restart it once: like 'up', but if service
           stops, don't restart it down: send TERM and CONT signals. If ./run
           exits, start ./finish

                   if it exists. After it stops, do not restart service
           exit: send TERM and CONT signals to service and log service. If they exit,

                   runsv exits too
           pause, cont, hup, alarm, interrupt, quit, 1, 2, term, kill: send
           STOP, CONT, HUP, ALRM, INT, QUIT, USR1, USR2, TERM, KILL signal to service

           svlogd     [-ttv] [-r c] [-R abc] [-l len] [-b buflen] dir...

           Continuously read log data from standard input, optionally filter
           log messages, and write the data to one or more automatically
           rotated logs

           swapoff    [-a] [DEVICE]

           Stop swapping on DEVICE


                   -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices

           swapon     [-a] [-p pri] [DEVICE]

           Start swapping on DEVICE


                   -a      Start swapping on all swap devices
                   -p pri  Set swap device priority

           switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGS]

           Free initramfs and switch to another root fs: chroot to NEW_ROOT,
           delete all in /, move NEW_ROOT to /, execute NEW_INIT. PID must be
           1. NEW_ROOT must be a mountpoint.


                   -c DEV  Reopen stdio to DEV after switch


           Write all buffered blocks to disk

           sysctl     [OPTIONS] [VALUE]...

           Configure kernel parameters at runtime


                   -n      Don't print key names
                   -e      Don't warn about unknown keys
                   -w      Change sysctl setting
                   -p FILE Load sysctl settings from FILE (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
                   -a      Display all values
                   -A      Display all values in table form


                   sysctl [-n] [-e] variable...
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -w variable=value...
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -a
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -p file        (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -A

           syslogd    [OPTIONS]

           System logging utility.  Note that this version of syslogd ignores


                   -n              Run in foreground
                   -O FILE         Log to given file (default:/var/log/messages)
                   -l n            Set local log level
                   -S              Smaller logging output
                   -s SIZE         Max size (KB) before rotate (default:200KB, 0=off)
                   -b NUM          Number of rotated logs to keep (default:1, max=99, 0=purge)
                   -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
                   -L              Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
                   -D              Drop duplicates
                   -C[size(KiB)]   Log to shared mem buffer (read it using logread)        /* NB: -Csize shouldn't have space (because size is optional) */


                   $ syslogd -R masterlog:514
                   $ syslogd -R

       tac tac        [FILE]...

           Concatenate FILE(s) and print them in reverse

           tail       [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
           than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.
           With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.


                   -c N[kbm]       Output the last N bytes
                   -n N[kbm]       Print last N lines instead of last 10
                   -f              Output data as the file grows
                   -q              Never output headers giving file names
                   -s SEC          Wait SEC seconds between reads with -f
                   -v              Always output headers giving file names

           If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a '+', output
           begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise,
           print the last N items in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k
           (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).


                   $ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf

       tar tar        -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR]

           Create, extract, or list files from a tar file


                   c       Create
                   x       Extract
                   t       List
           Archive format selection:

                   z       Filter the archive through gzip
                   j       Filter the archive through bzip2
                   a       Filter the archive through lzma
                   Z       Filter the archive through compress
           File selection:

                   f       Name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin
                   O       Extract to stdout
                   exclude File to exclude
                   X       File with names to exclude
                   C       Change to directory DIR before operation
                   v       Verbose


                   $ zcat /tmp/tarball.tar.gz | tar -xf -
                   $ tar -cf /tmp/tarball.tar /usr/local

           taskset    [-p] [MASK] [PID | PROG [ARGS]]

           Set or get CPU affinity


                   -p      Operate on an existing PID


                   $ taskset 0x7 ./dgemm_test&
                   $ taskset -p 0x1 $!
                   pid 4790's current affinity mask: 7
                   pid 4790's new affinity mask: 1
                   $ taskset 0x7 /bin/sh -c './taskset -p 0x1 $$'
                   pid 6671's current affinity mask: 1
                   pid 6671's new affinity mask: 1
                   $ taskset -p 1
                   pid 1's current affinity mask: 3

       tc  tc             /*"[OPTIONS] "*/"OBJECT CMD [dev STRING]

           OBJECT: {qdisc|class|filter} CMD: {add|del|change|replace|show}

           qdisc [ handle QHANDLE ] [ root | ingress | parent CLASSID ]

                   /* "[ estimator INTERVAL TIME_CONSTANT ]
           " */    [ [ QDISC_KIND ] [ help | OPTIONS ] ]

                   QDISC_KIND := { [p|b]fifo | tbf | prio | cbq | red | etc. }
           qdisc show [ dev STRING ] [ingress]
           class [ classid CLASSID ] [ root | parent CLASSID ]

                   [ [ QDISC_KIND ] [ help | OPTIONS ] ]
           class show [ dev STRING ] [ root | parent CLASSID ]
           filter [ pref PRIO ] [ protocol PROTO ]

                   /* "    [ estimator INTERVAL TIME_CONSTANT ]
           " */    [ root | classid CLASSID ] [ handle FILTERID ]

                   [ [ FILTER_TYPE ] [ help | OPTIONS ] ]
           filter show [ dev STRING ] [ root | parent CLASSID ]

           tcpsvd     [-hEv] [-c N] [-C N[:MSG]] [-b N] [-u USER] [-l NAME] IP
           PORT PROG

           Create TCP socket, bind  to IP:PORT and listen for incoming
           connection. Run PROG for each connection.

           IP        IP to listen on. '0' = all PORT      Port to listen on
           PROG [ARGS]     Program to run -l NAME        Local hostname (else
           looks up local hostname in DNS) -u USER[:GROUP]     Change to
           user/group after bind -c N      Handle up to N connections
           simultaneously -b N      Allow a backlog of approximately N TCP
           SYNs -C N[:MSG]     Allow only up to N connections from the same IP

                           New connections from this IP address are closed
                           immediately. MSG is written to the peer before close
           B<-h>           Look up peer's hostname
           B<-E>           Do not set up environment variables
           B<-v>           Verbose

       tee tee        [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output


                   -a      Append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite
                   -i      Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)


                   $ echo "Hello" | tee /tmp/foo
                   $ cat /tmp/foo

           telnet     HOST [PORT]

           Connect to telnet server

           telnetd    [OPTIONS]

           Handle incoming telnet connections


                   -l LOGIN        Exec LOGIN on connect
                   -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue
                   -K              Close connection as soon as login exits
                                   (normally wait until all programs close slave pty)
                   -p PORT         Port to listen on
                   -b ADDR         Address to bind to
                   -F              Run in foreground
                   -i              Run as inetd subservice

           test       EXPRESSION ]

           Check file types, compare values etc. Return a 0/1 exit code
           depending on logical value of EXPRESSION


                   $ test 1 -eq 2
                   $ echo $?
                   $ test 1 -eq 1
                   $ echo $?
                   $ [ -d /etc ]
                   $ echo $?
                   $ [ -d /junk ]
                   $ echo $?

           tftp       [OPTIONS] HOST [PORT]

           Transfer a file from/to tftp server


                   -l FILE Local FILE
                   -r FILE Remote FILE
                   -g      Get file
                   -p      Put file
                   -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets

           tftpd      [-cr] [-u USER] [DIR]

           Transfer a file on tftp client's request.

           tftpd should be used as an inetd service.  tftpd's line for

                   69 dgram udp nowait root tftpd tftpd /files/to/serve
           It also can be ran from udpsvd:

                   udpsvd -vE 69 tftpd /files/to/serve


                   -r      Prohibit upload
                   -c      Allow file creation via upload
                   -u      Access files as USER

           time       [OPTIONS] PROG [ARGS]

           Run PROG. When it finishes, its resource usage is displayed.


                   -v      Verbose

           timeout    [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG [ARGS]

           Runs PROG. Sends SIG to it if it is not gone in SECS seconds.
           Defaults: SECS: 10, SIG: TERM.

       top top        [-b] [-nCOUNT] [-dSECONDS]

           Provide a view of process activity in real time.  Read the status
           of all processes from /proc each SECONDS and show the status for
           however many processes will fit on the screen.

           touch      [-c] [-d DATE] FILE [FILE]...

           Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]


                   -c      Do not create files
                   -d DT   Date/time to use


                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   /bin/ls: /tmp/foo: No such file or directory
                   $ touch /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 15 01:11 /tmp/foo

       tr  tr         [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

           Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input,
           writing to standard output


                   -c      Take complement of STRING1
                   -d      Delete input characters coded STRING1
                   -s      Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character


                   $ echo "gdkkn vnqkc" | tr [a-y] [b-z]
                   hello world

           traceroute [-FIldnrv] [-f 1st_ttl] [-m max_ttl] [-p port#] [-q
           nqueries]      [-s src_addr] [-t tos] [-w wait] [-g gateway] [-i
           iface]      [-z pausemsecs] HOST [data size]

           Trace the route to HOST


                   -F      Set the don't fragment bit
                   -I      Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams
                   -l      Display the ttl value of the returned packet
                   -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
                   -n      Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically
                   -r      Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host
                   -v      Verbose
                   -m max_ttl      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
                   -p port#        Base UDP port number used in probes
                                   (default is 33434)
                   -q nqueries     Number of probes per 'ttl' (default 3)
                   -s src_addr     IP address to use as the source address
                   -t tos          Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
                   -w wait         Time in seconds to wait for a response
                                   (default 3 sec)
                   -g              Loose source route gateway (8 max)


           Return an exit code of TRUE (0)


                   $ true
                   $ echo $?

       tty tty

           Print file name of standard input's terminal


                   -s      Print nothing, only return exit status


                   $ tty

           ttysize    [w] [h]

           Print dimension(s) of standard input's terminal, on error return

           tunctl     [-f device] ([-t name] | -d name) [-u owner] [-g group]

           Create or delete tun interfaces Options:

                   -f name         tun device (/dev/net/tun)
                   -t name         Create iface 'name'
                   -d name         Delete iface 'name'
                   -u owner        Set iface owner
                   -g group        Set iface group
                   -b              Brief output


                   # tunctl
                   # tunctl -d tun0

           tune2fs    [-c max-mounts-count] [-e errors-behavior] [-g group]
           [-i interval[d|m|w]] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-l] [-s
           sparse-flag] [-m reserved-blocks-percent] [-o
           [^]mount-options[,...]] [-r reserved-blocks-count] [-u user] [-C
           mount-count] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-dir] [-O
           [^]feature[,...]] [-T last-check-time] [-U UUID] device

           Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems

           udhcpc     [-Cfbnqtvo] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i
           INTERFACE]      [-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script] [-O
           dhcp-option]... [-P N]

                           -V,--vendorclass=CLASSID        Vendor class identifier
                   -i,--interface=INTERFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -H,-h,--hostname=HOSTNAME       Client hostname
                   -c,--clientid=CLIENTID  Client identifier
                   -C,--clientid-none      Suppress default client identifier
                   -p,--pidfile=file       Create pidfile
                   -r,--request=IP         IP address to request
                   -s,--script=file        Run file at DHCP events (default "CONFIG_UDHCPC_DEFAULT_SCRIPT
                   -t,--retries=N          Send up to N request packets
                   -T,--timeout=N          Try to get a lease for N seconds (default 3)
                   -A,--tryagain=N         Wait N seconds (default 20) after failure
                   -O,--request-option=OPT Request DHCP option OPT (cumulative)
                   -o,--no-default-options Do not request any options (unless -O is also given)
                   -f,--foreground Run in foreground       USE_FOR_MMU(
                   -b,--background Background if lease is not immediately obtained )
                   -S,--syslog     Log to syslog too
                   -n,--now        Exit with failure if lease is not immediately obtained
                   -q,--quit       Quit after obtaining lease
                   -R,--release    Release IP on quit
                   -P,--client-port N  Use port N instead of default 68
                   -a,--arping     Use arping to validate offered address  )
                   -t N            Send up to N request packets
                   -T N            Try to get a lease for N seconds (default 3)
                   -A N            Wait N seconds (default 20) after failure
                   -O OPT          Request DHCP option OPT (cumulative)
                   -o              Do not request any options (unless -O is also given)
                   -f              Run in foreground       USE_FOR_MMU(
                   -b              Background if lease is not immediately obtained )
                   -S              Log to syslog too
                   -n              Exit with failure if lease is not immediately obtained
                   -q              Quit after obtaining lease
                   -R              Release IP on quit
                   -P N            Use port N instead of default 68
                   -a              Use arping to validate offered address  )

           udhcpd     [-fS] [-P N] [configfile]

           DHCP server

                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -S      Log to syslog too
                   -P N    Use port N instead of default 67

           udpsvd     [-hEv] [-c N] [-u USER] [-l NAME] IP PORT PROG

           Create UDP socket, bind to IP:PORT and wait for incoming packets.
           Run PROG for each packet, redirecting all further packets with same
           peer ip:port to it

           IP        IP to listen on. '0' = all PORT      Port to listen on
           PROG [ARGS]     Program to run -l NAME        Local hostname (else
           looks up local hostname in DNS) -u USER[:GROUP]     Change to
           user/group after bind -c N      Handle up to N connections
           simultaneously -h        Look up peer's hostname -E        Do not
           set up environment variables -v        Verbose

           umount     [flags] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

           Unmount file systems


                   -a      Unmount all file systems in /etc/mtab
                   -n      Don't erase /etc/mtab entries
                   -r      Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
                   -l      Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
                   -f      Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
                   -d      Free loop device if it has been used


                   $ umount /dev/hdc1

           uname      [-amnrspv]

           Print system information.


                   -a      Print all
                   -m      The machine (hardware) type
                   -n      Hostname
                   -r      OS release
                   -s      OS name (default)
                   -p      Processor type
                   -v      OS version


                   $ uname -a
                   Linux debian 2.4.23 #2 Tue Dec 23 17:09:10 MST 2003 i686 GNU/Linux

           uncompress [-c] [-f] [name...]

           Uncompress .Z file[s]


                   -c      Extract to stdout
                   -f      Overwrite an existing file

           unexpand   [-f][-a][-t NUM] [FILE|-]

           Convert spaces to tabs, writing to standard output.


                   -a,--all        Convert all blanks
                   -f,--first-only Convert only leading blanks
                   -t,--tabs=N     Tabstops every N chars

           uniq       [-fscduw]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

           Discard duplicate lines


                   -c      Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
                   -d      Only print duplicate lines
                   -u      Only print unique lines
                   -f N    Skip first N fields
                   -s N    Skip first N chars (after any skipped fields)
                   -w N    Compare N characters in line


                   $ echo -e "a\na\nb\nc\nc\na" | sort | uniq

           unix2dos   [OPTION] [FILE]

           Convert FILE in-place from Unix to DOS format.  When no file is
           given, use stdin/stdout.


                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

           unlzma     [OPTIONS] [FILE]

           Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)


                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force

           unlzop     [-cfvCF] [FILE]...

                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force
                   -v      Verbose
                   -F      Don't store or verify checksum

           unzip      [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d

           Extract files from ZIP archives


                   -l      List archive contents (with -q for short form)
                   -n      Never overwrite existing files (default)
                   -o      Overwrite files without prompting
                   -p      Send output to stdout
                   -q      Quiet
                   -x      Exclude these files
                   -d      Extract files into this directory


           Display the time since the last boot


                   $ uptime
                     1:55pm  up  2:30, load average: 0.09, 0.04, 0.00

           usleep     N

           Pause for N microseconds


                   $ usleep 1000000
                   [pauses for 1 second]

           uudecode   [-o outfile] [infile]

           Uudecode a file Finds outfile name in uuencoded source unless -o is


                   $ uudecode -o busybox busybox.uu
                   $ ls -l busybox
                   -rwxr-xr-x   1 ams      ams        245264 Jun  7 21:35 busybox

           uuencode   [-m] [infile] stored_filename

           Uuencode a file to stdout


                   -m      Use base64 encoding per RFC1521


                   $ uuencode busybox busybox
                   begin 755 busybox
                   <encoded file snipped>
                   $ uudecode busybox busybox > busybox.uu

           vconfig    COMMAND [OPTIONS]

           Create and remove virtual ethernet devices


                   add             [interface-name] [vlan_id]
                   rem             [vlan-name]
                   set_flag        [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]
                   set_egress_map  [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
                   set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
                   set_name_type   [name-type]

       vi  vi         [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Edit FILE


                   -c      Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
                   -R      Read-only - do not write to the file
                   -H      Short help regarding available features

           vlock      [OPTIONS]

           Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.


                   -a      Lock all VTs

           volname    [DEVICE]

           Show CD volume name of the DEVICE (default /dev/cdrom)

           watch      [-n seconds] [-t] PROG [ARGS]

           Run PROG periodically


                   -n      Loop period in seconds (default 2)
                   -t      Don't print header


                   $ watch date
                   Mon Dec 17 10:31:40 GMT 2000
                   Mon Dec 17 10:31:42 GMT 2000
                   Mon Dec 17 10:31:44 GMT 2000

           watchdog   [-t N[ms]] [-T N[ms]] [-F] DEV

           Periodically write to watchdog device DEV


                   -T N    Reboot after N seconds if not reset (default 60)
                   -t N    Reset every N seconds (default 30)
                   -F      Run in foreground

           Use 500ms to specify period in milliseconds

       wc  wc         [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

           Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line
           if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard


                   -c      Print the byte counts
                   -l      Print the newline counts
                   -L      Print the length of the longest line
                   -w      Print the word counts


                   $ wc /etc/passwd
                        31      46    1365 /etc/passwd

           wget            [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet]
           [-O|--output-document file]      [--header 'header: value']
           [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]      [-U|--user-agent agent] url

           Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP


                   -s      Spider mode - only check file existence
                   -c      Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
                   -q      Quiet
                   -P      Set directory prefix to DIR
                   -O      Save to filename ('-' for stdout)
                   -U      Adjust 'User-Agent' field
                   -Y      Use proxy ('on' or 'off')

           which      [COMMAND]...

           Locate a COMMAND


                   $ which login

       who who        [-a]

           Show who is logged on


                   -a      show all


           Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

           xargs      [OPTIONS] [PROG [ARGS]]

           Run PROG on every item given by standard input


                   -p      Ask user whether to run each command
                   -r      Do not run command if input is empty
                   -0      Input is separated by NUL characters
                   -t      Print the command on stderr before execution
                   -e[STR] STR stops input processing
                   -n N    Pass no more than N args to PROG
                   -s N    Pass command line of no more than N bytes
                   -x      Exit if size is exceeded


                   $ ls | xargs gzip
                   $ find . -name '*.c' -print | xargs rm

       yes yes        [OPTIONS] [STRING]

           Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or 'y'

           zcat       FILE

           Uncompress to stdout

           zcip       [OPTIONS] IFACE SCRIPT

           Manage a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address


                   -f              Run in foreground
                   -q              Quit after obtaining address
                   -r 169.254.x.x  Request this address first
                   -v              Verbose

           With no -q, runs continuously monitoring for ARP conflicts, exits
           only on I/O errors (link down etc)


       GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the
       behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure
       how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information.
       This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and
       using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries.  BusyBox tries to
       avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS.  Some applets however,
       such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

       If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal
       functions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and
       /etc/shadow files without using NSS.  This may allow you to run your
       system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration
       files and libraries.

       When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly
       require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in
       particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*,
       and /lib/libresolv*).

       Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as
       uClibc.  In addition to making your system significantly smaller,
       uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.


       Denis Vlasenko <>


       The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know
       it or not.  If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should
       probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory.
       If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done
       needs more detail, or is incorect, please send in an update.

       Emanuele Aina <>      run-parts

       Erik Andersen <>

           Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
           core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.
           Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that
           nobody is going to actually read.

       Laurence Anderson <>

           rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm

       Jeff Angielski <>

           ftpput, ftpget

       Edward Betts <>

           expr, hostid, logname, whoami

       John Beppu <>

           du, nslookup, sort

       Brian Candler <>


       Randolph Chung <>

           fbset, ping, hostname

       Dave Cinege <>

           more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
           various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

       Jordan Crouse <>


       Magnus Damm <>

           tftp client insmod powerpc support

       Larry Doolittle <>

           pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

       Glenn Engel <>


       Gennady Feldman <>

           Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
           logread), various fixes.

       Karl M. Hegbloom <>

           cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

       Daniel Jacobowitz <>


       Matt Kraai <>

           documentation, bugfixes, test suite

       Stephan Linz <>

               ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence

       John Lombardo <>


       Glenn McGrath <>

           Common unarchving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
           nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.
           Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.

       Manuel Novoa III <>

           cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
           mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
           get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines

           also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
           ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
           mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
           interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

       Vladimir Oleynik <>

           cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
           ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
           locale, various fixes
           and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

       Bruce Perens <>

           Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
           still be found hiding here and there...

       Tim Riker <>

           bug fixes, member of fan club

       Kent Robotti <>

           reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.

       Chip Rosenthal <>, <>

           wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

       Pavel Roskin <>

           Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

       Gyepi Sam <>

           Remote logging feature for syslogd

       Linus Torvalds <>

           mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

       Mark Whitley <>

           grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
           style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.

       Charles P. Wright <>

           gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

       Enrique Zanardi <>

           tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

       Tito Ragusa <>

               devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.