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       ski, xski, bskinc - An IA-64 Instruction Set Simulator


       ski  [-help]  [-i  file]  [-rest  file]  [-nonet]       [-srcroot  dir]
       [-forceuser]   [-forcesystem]  [-strace]       [-palen  n]  [-valen  n]
       [-ridlen n] [-keylen n] [-grfile n]

       xski   [-help]   [-i   file]   [-rest   file]  [-noconsole]  [-nonet]
       [-srcroot dir] [-forceuser] [-forcesystem] [-strace]        [-palen  n]
       [-valen n] [-ridlen n] [-keylen n] [-grfile n]

       bskinc   [-help]   [-i   file]  [-rest  file]  [-noconsole]  [-nonet]
       [-forceuser]  [-forcesystem]  [-icnt  file]  [-strace]  [-palen   n]
       [-valen n] [-ridlen n] [-keylen n] [-grfile n]


       Ski is an IA-64 instruction set simulator from Hewlett-Packard Company.
       It simulates the IA-64 architecture  as  defined  by  the  architecture
       manual.  This is not a full platform simulator, i.e., no system chipset
       or  PCI  bus  simulation  is  done.   However  it  supports  the   full
       instruction  set of the architecture, including privileged instructions
       and associated semantics.

       Ski can be used in two operating mode: user- and system-mode.  In  user
       mode,  you  can  run  user  level  applications  directly on top of the
       simulator.  The emulation stops at the system call boundary. The system
       call is emulated by calling the host OS, such as x86 Linux. Conversions
       between 64-bit and 32-bit parameters are done by Ski  as  needed.  This
       allows fast execution of user programs. Most system calls are emulated,
       though the emulation is not always 100 percent accurate.

       In system-mode, operating-system kernel development  and  execution  is
       possible because interrupts and virtual memory behaviors are simulated.
       In this mode you can actually run the Linux kernel  and,  once  booted,
       user applications can be run on top of the simulated kernel.

       The  ski  simulator comes with three different interfaces. The simplest
       one is the batch mode, called bskinc a shell running a script.

       There is also a full-text curses-based mode,  where  you  can  interact
       with  the simulator to inspect code, set breakpoints, etc. This version
       is called  ski

       Finally there is a graphical version  called    xski  which  gives  you
       several  windows  where  you  can  look  at  the code, inspect register
       contents, etc.

       All three modes provides the same core simulation, only  the  interface
       is different.

       -help  Prints  the list of supported options for the specific interface
              required.  Not all  options  are  available  in  every  possible

       -nonet When running in kernel mode, this option tells the simulator not
              to probe for existing Ethernet interfaces on the host. This  way
              the  Linux kernel won’t detect any device. This option is useful
              when you don’t want to run the simulator as root (or  setuid  to
              root). For networking support root privilege is required.

       -srcroot directory
              Specify  the  directory  where the program sources can be found.
              This option is  only  useful  when  combined  the  "mixed  mode"
              display (see the "pm" command inside Ski).

              Do  not  use an xterm as the default output console, but use the
              current tty.  This option is only useful when ski is invoked  in
              batch  mode.  It  allows  to run in the current terminal window.
              This is used mostly within the NUE(1) environment.

              Force the simulator  into  user-mode.   The  simulator  normally
              auto-detects  which mode to run in, but this option is available
              to force user-mode in case auto-detection fails for some reason.

              Force  the  simulator  into system-mode.  The simulator normally
              auto-detects which mode to run in, but this option is  available
              to  force  system-mode  in  case  auto-detection  fails for some

              This option displays all the system calls executed by  the  user
              level programs.  It is only valid when running in user-mode. The
              output looks like a highly simplified  version  of  output  from

       -i file
              Process initialization <file> at startup.

       -icnt  Store instruction counts in <file>.

       -rest  Restore simulation state from <file>.

       -stats Display execution run-time and instruction rate.

       -palen <n>
              Implemented physical address bits.  Default: n=63

       -valen <n>
              Implemented virtual address bits.  Default: n=61

       -ridlen <n>
              Implemented RR.rid bits.  Default: n=24

       -keylen <n>
              Implemented PKR.key bits.  Default: n=24

       -grlen <n>
              General Register file size.  Default: n=128

Running in user-mode

       To  run  a  simple IA-64 program in user-mode only, you can type in the

       $ bskinc my_ia64_prg

       This will force execution is the current terminal and in batch mode.

       IMPORTANT: To run dynamically linked IA-64 binaries, it is necessary to
       have  IA-64  versions  of the necessary shared libraries installed.  On
       x86 Linux, this is most easily accomplished by  installing  the  NUE(1)

Running in system-mode

       To  run  a  Linux  kernel  on  top  of  the simulator, you need several

       - a Linux kernel compiled to use the HP-simulator.  It  needs  to  have

       - a boot loader that goes with it (compiled with  "make  boot"  in  the
       kernel source tree).

       - a disk image file with IA-64 binaries on it.

       Please  refer to extra documentation to learn in greater details how to
       build those 3 components.

       Once you have those components, you launch execution by simply typing:

       $ ski bootloader vmlinux simscsi=/path/sd simeth=eth0

       In this example, the simscsi= option informs the Linux kernel where  to
       find the SCSI disk images. Here /path/sd is just the prefix, the kernel
       will automatically look for /path/sd{a,b,c,...}. So the disk image must
       use  the  full name, i.e., /path/sda. The simeth= indicates which local
       interface to use for the simulated Ethernet driver. The simulator  must
       be run with root privilege to get the networking emulation to work.

       You  can specify other options on the command line, just like you would
       do at the LILO boot prompt for instance.

Getting help inside ski

       When you run ski in interactive mode via ski or xski, you can get  help
       on commands by typing help.

       When running in curses mode, you must make sure that you have the PAGER
       environment variable set to whatever is your preferred  pager  command.
       It is usually set to more(1) or less(1). If the variable does not exist
       ski will default to using less(1).  Note that less(1)  usually  behaves
       the best when interacting with ski.

Using Xski

       In  this  version (1.1.0) of ski, the X11 interface has not been built.
       If you would like such a GUI, please feel free to contribute patches to
       convert the current Motif version to something more modern.


              If  this environment variable is set (the value is unimportant),
              the ski-fake-xterm(1) utility will be used for output to stdout,
              instead  of  xterm(1).   This  will  result  in a temporary file
              created in the current working directory with a name of the form
              "ski.XXXXXX", where "XXXXXX" can be any six characters.


       qemu(1), bochs(1)


       Hewlett-Packard Company
       Stephane Eranian <>
       David Mosberger  <