bison - GNU Project parser generator (yacc replacement)
bison [ -b file-prefix ] [ --file-prefix=file-prefix ] [ -d ] [
--defines ] [ -l ] [ --no-lines ] [ -o outfile ] [ --output-
file=outfile ] [ -p prefix ] [ --name-prefix=prefix ] [ -t ] [ --debug
] [ -v ] [ --verbose ] [ -V ] [ --version ] [ -y ] [ --yacc ] [
--fixed-output-files ] file
Bison is a parser generator in the style of yacc(1). It should be
upwardly compatible with input files designed for yacc.
Input files should follow the yacc convention of ending in .y. Unlike
yacc, the generated files do not have fixed names, but instead use the
prefix of the input file. For instance, a grammar description file
named parse.y would produce the generated parser in a file named
parse.tab.c, instead of yacc’s y.tab.c.
This description of the options that can be given to bison is adapted
from the node Invocation in the bison.texinfo manual, which should be
taken as authoritative.
Bison supports both traditional single-letter options and mnemonic long
option names. Long option names are indicated with -- instead of -.
Abbreviations for option names are allowed as long as they are unique.
When a long option takes an argument, like --file-prefix, connect the
option name and the argument with =.
Specify a prefix to use for all bison output file names. The
names are chosen as if the input file were named file-prefix.c.
Write an extra output file containing macro definitions for the
token type names defined in the grammar and the semantic value
type YYSTYPE, as well as a few extern variable declarations.
If the parser output file is named name.c then this file is
This output file is essential if you wish to put the definition
of yylex in a separate source file, because yylex needs to be
able to refer to token type codes and the variable yylval.
Don’t put any #line preprocessor commands in the parser file.
Ordinarily bison puts them in the parser file so that the C
compiler and debuggers will associate errors with your source
file, the grammar file. This option causes them to associate
errors with the parser file, treating it an independent source
file in its own right.
Specify the name outfile for the parser file.
The other output files’ names are constructed from outfile as
described under the -v and -d switches.
Rename the external symbols used in the parser so that they
start with prefix instead of yy. The precise list of symbols
renamed is yyparse, yylex, yyerror, yylval, yychar, and yydebug.
For example, if you use -p c, the names become cparse, clex, and
Output a definition of the macro YYDEBUG into the parser file,
so that the debugging facilities are compiled.
Write an extra output file containing verbose descriptions of
the parser states and what is done for each type of look-ahead
token in that state.
This file also describes all the conflicts, both those resolved
by operator precedence and the unresolved ones.
The file’s name is made by removing .tab.c or .c from the parser
output file name, and adding .output instead.
Therefore, if the input file is foo.y, then the parser file is
called foo.tab.c by default. As a consequence, the verbose
output file is called foo.output.
Print the version number of bison.
Equivalent to -o y.tab.c; the parser output file is called
y.tab.c, and the other outputs are called y.output and y.tab.h.
The purpose of this switch is to imitate yacc’s output file name
conventions. Thus, the following shell script can substitute
bison -y $*
The long-named options can be introduced with ‘+’ as well as ‘--’, for
compatibility with previous releases. Eventually support for ‘+’ will
be removed, because it is incompatible with the POSIX.2 standard.
/usr/local/lib/bison.simple simple parser
/usr/local/lib/bison.hairy complicated parser
The Bison Reference Manual, included as the file bison.texinfo in the
bison source distribution.