abcm2ps — translate ABC music notation to PostScript
abcm2ps [options] [abc-file [file-options]] [...]
abcm2ps translates tunes written in the ABC music notation format to
customary sheet music scores in PostScript. It is based on abc2ps 1.2.5
and was developed mainly to print Baroque organ scores that have
independent voices played on multiple keyboards and a pedal-board. The
program has since been extended to support various other notation
conventions in use for sheet music.
Options given immediately after the command name apply to the run as a
whole; options given after an ABC file name apply to that file.
Formatting parameters can also be set in ‘format files’ and in the ABC
-0 Split tunes across page breaks if necessary.
+0 Start a new page if a tune doesn’t fit on the current one
-1 Output one tune per page.
+1 Output multiple tunes per page (default).
-a a Maximal horizontal compression when staff breaks are chosen
automatically. Must be between 0 and 1 (default: 0.65)
-B b Try to typeset b bars on each staff line.
+B Don’t try to typeset a fixed number of bars on each staff
-b b Start measure numbering at b.
-C Obsolete option; ignored.
-c The continuation symbol is implicitly appended to each music
line. This amounts to automatic line breaking.
+c Automatic line breaking is turned off (default).
Search format files in directory.
-d length Set the vertical interstaff space to length (default: 46pt)
-E Output is generated in EPS format, one file per page.
+E Output is generated in multipage PS format (default).
-e list Select which tunes from an ABC file to print. list is a
comma-separated list of tune numbers (as per the ‘X:’
header). The -e option must occur after an ABC file name and
applies to that file. Ranges of tune numbers may be specified
like t1-t2; t2 may be omitted which means ‘all remaining
tunes until the end of file’. Note that filtering may cause
problems, e.g., with global (non-tune) definitions in the ABC
-F file Read the format file file.fmt.
+F Do not read the default format file.
-f Enable flat beams in bagpipe tunes.
-G Omit slurs on grace notes.
+G Draw slurs on grace notes (default).
-g Obsolete option; ignored.
-H Display the current values of the formatting parameters.
-h Display program usage hints and quit.
-I length Indent the first line of the tune by length (default: 0).
-jb[b] Output a measure number every b measures. If b is 0, the
measure number appears at the left of each staff. The
trailing b causes a box to be drawn around each measure
number (default: no measure numbering).
+j Don’t output measure numbers.
-k Equivalent to -j.
+k Equivalent to +j.
-Lenc Set the language encoding to ISO-Latin-enc, where enc can
take on values from 0 to 6. The value 0 is equivalent to 1
but no PostScript encoding table is output (default: 0).
-l Generate landscape output.
+l Generate portrait output (default).
-M Suppress lyrics.
+M Include lyrics (default).
-m length Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm)
-N[mode] Number pages according to the mode:
0 no page numbers
1 page numbers at top left of page
2 page numbers at top right of page
3 page numbers at top left of even-numbered pages,
top right of odd-numbered pages
4 page numbers at top right of even-numbered pages,
top left of odd-numbered pages
For compatibility, -N is equivalent to -N2 (default: -N0).
+N Equivalent to -N0 (no page numbering).
-n Include notes and history from ABC tune ‘N:’ fields.
+n Omit notes and history from ABC tune ‘N:’ fields (default).
-O name Define the output file name. By default, the output file name
is ‘Out.ps’ for PostScript output and ‘Outnnn.eps’ for EPS
output (see -E). If this option is given, the output name
will be name or namennn.eps, respectively. If name is ‘=’,
the output file name will be the name of the ABC source file
with the extension ‘.ps’ or ‘.eps’. If name is ‘-’, the
output is written to stdout.
+O Revert to the default output file name (‘Out.ps’ or
-o Obsolete option; ignored.
-P Obsolete option; ignored.
-p Obsolete option; ignored.
-Q Print tempo (metronome) indications (default).
+Q Omit tempo (metronome) indications.
-R Obsolete option; ignored.
-S Obsolete option; ignored.
-s scale Set the page scale factor to scale. Note that the header and
footer are not scaled (default: 0.75).
Activate (or deactivate) tabulature drawing. n is the
tabulature number as defined in %%tabulature, and voice is
the voice name, full name or subname as found in V:. When
this is absent, the option applies to all voices. Up to 4
such options may be given. See also format.txt.
-u Use implicit decorations as in abc2ps (default: off)
-V Output version number and quit.
-v Obsolete option; ignored.
-w length Adjust the right margin such that the staff width is length
-x Include the ‘X:’ tune number in the title.
+x Do not include the ‘X:’ tune number in the title (default).
The following formatting parameters can be used in format files. They
can also occur in ABC files when they are preceded by %%, or as I:
headers (even in the middle of a music line).
If true, set M as the +tenuto+ decoration and do a pitch
translation if the notes are too high for a bass clef. Also,
an octave translation is applied to bass and alto parts.
Align the bars of the next int lines of music. This works
only when the music contains only one voice (no V: or
%%staves) (default: 0).
Define where to display the composer field. A negative value
displays it flush-left, a value of zero centered, and a
positive value flush-right (default: 1).
annotationfont font [encoding] size
Set the annotation font to font with size size (default:
Adjust the clefs when they are not defined in ‘K:’ or ‘V:’
lines (default: 1).
Synonym for measurenb.
Try to typeset with int bars per line (default: 0; command
line: -b, +b)
beginps Start a sequence of PostScript code lines extending until the
next endps line. This parameter may only occur within ABC and
format files, not on the command line.
Set the bottom margin to length (default: 1cm)
If this is set, on finding an end-of-line (eoln), pretend
that there was a space before the next note or rest. This
prevents a beam to be continued between two input lines
If this is set, the stem of the note on the middle of the
staff extends downwards. Otherwise it extends up or down
depending on the preceding note (default: 0).
If this is set together with combinevoices, voice combination
takes place in all cases. Otherwise, notes which are too
close together in pitch are not combined.
If this is set, simultaneous notes of the same duration
belonging to voices on the same staff are combined into
chords (default: 0).
composerfont font [encoding] size
Set the ‘composer’ font to font with size size (default:
Set the vertical space before the composer name to length
If this is not set, the bar numbers of second repeats are set
to those of the corresponding first repeats. If this is set,
all bars are numbered sequentially (default: 0).
If this is set to true, ignore the line breaks in a tune
(default: 0; command line: -c, +c)
Format for date and time output. The admissible values of
this parameter are described in the documentation for the
strftime(3) C library function. Note that percent signs need
to be escaped (default: "b e, Y H:M")
deco name c_func ps_func h wl wr [str]
Define a decoration. This is an experimental feature which is
subject to change in future releases and requires good
knowledge of the internals of abcm2ps. See the files
format.txt and deco.abc for details.
When set, horizontally align dynamic marks (default: 1)
Set the language encoding to ISO-Latin-enc, where enc can
take values from 0 to 6. The value 0 is the same as 1, but no
PostScript encoding table is output.
Alternatively, enc may take one of the predefined values us-
ascii, iso-8859-1, iso-8859-2, iso-8859-3, iso-8859-4,
iso-8859-9, iso-8859-10, or native (meaning encoding vectors
will not be changed). If enc is anything else, it must be a
string which is taken to be PostScript commands that set up a
suitable encoding vector.
Draw expression decorations above the staff. If neither
exprabove nor exprbelow are ‘true’, expression decorations
are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics on the staff,
and below otherwise. exprabove takes precedence over
exprbelow (default: 0).
Draw expression decorations below the staff. If neither
exprabove nor exprbelow are ‘true’, expression decorations
are drawn above the staff if there are lyrics on the staff,
and below otherwise. exprabove takes precedence over
exprbelow (default: 0).
Draw flat beams in bagpipe tunes (default: 0; command line:
font font [encoding]
Define a font and its encoding. Use this parameter when you
want to refer to specific fonts in ABC files/tunes. It must
occur before any PostScript output is written, generally in a
format file. encoding defaults to the encoding set up by the
Define the text printed at the bottom of every page. There
may be one or two lines. When there are two lines, these must
be separated by the characters ‘\n’ (not a real newline).
Each of the lines consists of three areas, left, center and
right, which are separated by tabs (real tabs, not ’\t’) and
may be empty - if the left area is empty, the text must be
If the footer begins with ‘-’, it will not be printed on the
first page of the document.
The ‘$’ character introduces variable expansion:
$d The date and time of last modification of the ABC
$D The current date and time
$F The current input file name
$Ix The value of header x of the tune
$P The current page number
$P0 The current pagenumber (when even)
$P1 The current pagenumber (when odd)
$T The current tune title
$V ‘abcm2ps-’ followed by the program’s version number
For example, the command line option -N3 is equivalent to
‘%%header "$P0 $P1"’ (note the two tabs). (Default:
footerfont font [encoding] size
Set the footer font to font with size size (default: Times-
Read the format file filename (default: none).
Prevent the characters ‘#’, ‘b’ and ‘=’ to be displayed as
the sharp sign, the flat sign, and the natural sign,
respectively, in guitar chords. When this flag is set, the
display of the accidentals may be forced by escaping the
characters (‘\#’, ‘\b’ and ‘\=’) (default: 0)
Draw a box around guitar chords. Can be set to ‘true’ using
‘%%gchordfont’ below. (Default: 0)
gchordfont font [encoding] size [box]
Set the guitar chord font to font with size size. If box
is specified, draw a box around guitar chords (default:
Helvetica 12, no box)
Draw slurs on grace notes if true (default: 1; command line:
gracespace float float float
Define the space before, between, and after the grace notes
(default: 6.5 8.0 12.0)
Define the text printed at the top of every page. See the
footer parameter above for the syntax (default: none)
headerfont font [encoding] size
Set the header font to font with size size (default: Times-
historyfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for history entries to font with size size
(default: Times-Roman 16)
If an under-staff lyrics line ends with a hyphen, put another
hyphen at the beginning of the next line (default:0)
Indent the first line of a tune by length (default:0; command
infofont font [encoding] size
Set the information line font to font with size size
(default: Times-Italic 14)
Display the rhythm (‘R:’), the origin (‘O:’), and the area
(‘A:’) of the tune on a single ‘information line’ (default:
infoname letter tag
Define the headers to be printed after a tune when
writehistory is set. The tag is printed before the actual
header value. By default, this outputs the R, B, S, D, N, Z,
and H headers, with tags ‘Rhythm:’, ‘Book:’, ‘Source:’,
‘Discography:’, ‘Notes:’, ‘Transcription:’, and ‘History:’,
Set the vertical space before the information line to length
Set page orientation to landscape if true (default: 0;
command line: -l, +l).
Set the left margin to length (default: 1.8cm; command line:
Set the factor for spacing between lines of text to float
times the font size (default: 1.1)
Set how much the output may be compressed horizontally when
staff breaks are chosen automatically. float must be between
0 and 1 (default: 0.65; command line: -a)
Set the maximum vertical inter-staff space to length
Set the maximum vertical system inter-staff space to length
Draw a box around the measure numbers if true (default: 0;
command line: -j or -k).
Start measure numbering of the tune at int. This parameter
is obsolete and should be replaced with %%setbarnb (outside
the tune body)
measurefont font [encoding] size [box]
Set the font for measure numbers to font at size size. If
[box] is specified, draw a box around the measure number
(default: Times-Italic 14, no box).
Draw a measure number every int bars. If int is 0, the
measure number appears at the left end of each staff. If int
is -1, no measure numbers are displayed at all (default: -1;
command line: -j or -k).
If true, no lyrics are output (default: 0; command line: -M,
Set the vertical space before the first staff of a tune to
length (default: 0.2cm)
Set the note spacing factor to float. This value is used to
compute the natural space notes take up. The base space of
the crotchet (quarter note) is always 40pt. When the duration
of a note type is twice that of another note type, the space
it takes up is multiplied by this factor. The default value
increases the note space by a factor of 2 when the
corresponding note’s value increases by a factor of 4. That
is, the space of a semibreve is 80pt and that of a semiquaver
is 20pt. Setting this value to 1 sets all note spaces to 40pt
If true, output one tune per page; if false, multiple tunes
are output per page if there is sufficient room (default: 0;
command line: -1, +1).
Set the page height to length (default: hardcoded)
Set the page width to length (default: hardcoded)
Set the factor for spacing between text paragraphs to float
Draw a box around the part names if true (default: 0)
partsfont font [encoding] size [box]
Set the font for part names to font with size size. If box
is specified, draw a box around the part names. (default:
Set the vertical space before a new part to length (default:
Define a postscript sequence to be included in the header of
the output file. This formatting parameter may be used to
override any postscript function or to define new functions
for use in deco. It should be processed before any output
occurs, that is, in a format file or at the beginning of the
first ABC file.
Print the part indications (‘P:’ header) (default: 1).
Print tempo (metronome) indications (‘Q:’ header) if true
(default: 1; command line: -Q, +Q).
repeatfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for repeat bracket numbers/texts to font at size
Set the right margin to length (default: 1.8cm)
Set the global page scale factor to float. This does not
apply to headers and footers (default: 0.75; command line:
When true, output some indications about the note/chord
and/or decorations for purposes of customisation. These
indications are stored in the PostScript variable defl. Note:
This is a potential compatibility problem. The parameter was
introduced in version 4.9.4. (default: 0)
setfont-1 font [encoding] size
setfont-2 font [encoding] size
setfont-3 font [encoding] size
setfont-4 font [encoding] size
Set up alternate fonts for strings. In most strings, you can
switch to one of the alternate fonts using $1..$4; $0
switches back to the default value for that string.
(default: Times-Roman 0)
Usually in multi-voice tunes, when two voices are in unison
there is often only one note head. If this flag is set, two
note heades are output (one is shifted) if one is a minim
(half note) and the other a crotchet (quarter note) or
shorter, i.e., a "black" note, or if one note is dotted and
the other is not. The parameter is really spelled
"shiftunisson" (default: 0).
Set the slur height factor to float (default: 1.0).
If false, a tune is output on a new page if it doesn’t fit on
the one currently being output. If true, a tune may be split
across page breaks (default: 0; command line: -0, +0).
If true, display breve notes in a square shape (default: 0)
If false, staves not containing notes are suppressed. This
includes staves that only contain visible rests (default: 1)
Set the vertical inter-staff space to length (default: 46pt;
command line: -d)
Set the right margin such that the staff width is length
(default: none - but see paperwidth and rightmargin).
Set the stem height to float (default: 20.0)
If true, use straight flags on stems (mostly useful for
bagpipe tunes (default: 0)
If true, stretch the last staff of a tune to fill the whole
line even though it may be underfull (default: 0)
If true, stretch all underfull staves to fill the whole line
subtitlefont font [encoding] size
Set the font for subtitles (second and subsequent ‘T:’
headers in a tune) to font with size size (default: Times-
Set the vertical space before subtitles (second and
subsequent ‘T:’ headers in a tune) to length (default:
Set the vertical system interstaff space to length (default:
Define a tablature for the current voice. See format.txt for
tempofont font [encoding] size
Set the font for tempo (metronome) indications to font with
size size (default: Times-Bold 15)
textfont font [encoding] size
Set the text font to font with size size (default: Times-
Set the default text option to int. This option is used for
text between %%begintext and %%endtext. int may be a
keyword; see begintext for values.
Set the vertical space before text blocks to length (default:
If true, a cautionary time signature is added to the end of
the line before if a time signature change occurs at the
beginning of a line of music (default: 0).
If true, output the tune title in uppercase letters (default:
titlefont font [encoding] size
Set the title font to font with size size (default: Times-
Defines the format of the tune title. This format overrides
the standard way the tune title is displayed. text is a
sequence of letters, numbers, and commas. A letter stands for
an ABC header (reasonable values include A, B, C, D, H, N, O,
P, R, S, T, X, and Z, but any letter may occur) and can
optionally be followed by a number. This number may be 0 (to
center the header), 1 (to display it flush-right), or -1 (to
display it flush-left); if no number is given the default is
0. A comma causes the next field(s) to be displayed farther
down the page. Unrecognized characters will be ignored. As an
example, "%%titleformat T-1 T1 T1, R0 C1 A1" will display the
first title header flush-left, the second and third titles
(if any) flush-right, then the rhythm centered and a little
bit lower, and the composer and area on the right.
If true, output the tune title flush left (instead of
centered) (default: 0)
Set the vertical space before the tune title to length
If true, if the last word of a title starts with a capital
letter and is preceded by a comma and a space, this word is
moved to the beginning of the title. For example, T:College
Hornpipe, The is printed as The College Hornpipe
Set the top margin to length (default: 1cm)
Set the vertical space at the top of a tune to length
tuplets when what value
Define how to draw tuplets. The when parameter can be 0 (to
decide automatically whether to draw a slur or bracket over
the tuplet), 1 (to never draw one) or 2 (to always draw one).
The what parameter defines what to draw: 0 means a bracket, 1
a slur; 2 extends beams across rests (does not work yet).
The value parameter defines how to annotate the tuplet: 0
means to write a simple number (p), 1 writes nothing, and 2
writes a ratio (p:q).
If true, output lyrics above the staff (instead of below it)
vocalfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for lyrics inside a tune to font with size size
(default: Times-Bold 13)
Set the vertical space between a staff and its lyrics to
length (default: 23pt)
voicefont font [encoding] size
Set the font for voice names (default: Times-Bold 13).
If true, print the number from the ‘X:’ header in the tune
title (default: 0; command line: -x, +x)
wordsfont font [encoding] size
Set the font for lyrics at the end of a tune to font with
size size (default: Times-Roman 16)
Set the vertical space before the end-of-tune lyrics to
length (default: 0.5cm)
If true, output notes and history (‘N:’ and ‘H:’ headers)
(default: 0; command line: -n, +n)
The following formatting parameters can only occur inside tunes and not
in a format file:
Start printing a free-form text. The text to be printed
appears on the subsequent lines of the the input file up to a
line containing %%endtext. The text lines may start with %%.
The parameter may be:
obeylines Line breaks in the input file are kept (default)
align or justify
Lines are justified
ragged or fill
Line breaks are ignored but output is left-
center Lines are centered
skip The text lines are not printed at all
Print one line of centered text
Include filename as an EPS file
%%endtext Finish a block of free text started by %%begintext
Define multicolumn printing. command may be:
start Save the current vertical position and left and
right margins. These margins may then be changed to
print music or text.
new Reset the vertical position to the place of the
previous start and restore the left and right
margins. These can then be changed again to display
end Restore the left and right margins and skip down
the page to a ‘safe place’.
Start a new page, restarting page numbering from int if
Repetition brackets are normally displayed as written in a
voice. %%repbra 0 suppresses them for the current voice.
%%repeat [n [k]]
Replace a sequence of notes by one or many repeat marks. When
placed after a bar line, n indicates the number of measures
to be repeated, either 1 or 2. If n is 1, k gives the number
of repetitions of the preceding measure. If n is 2, k is not
used. When placed after a note or rest, n gives the number of
notes and rests to be repeated, and k gives the number of
repeats. When omitted, n and k default to 1.
%%sep [h1 h2 length]
Print a separator (line) of length length with vertical space
h1 above and h2 below (defaults: h1 and h2: 0.5cm; length:
Set the measure number to int. When not inside a tune body,
this is equivalent to %%measurefirst.
Put the following material on staff num. This will lead,
e.g., to beams between notes in different staves. Useful for
keyboard music; see, for example, sample4.abc.
%%staffbreak length [f]
Leave a space of length in the current staff. If length is
greater than 0.5cm, the left side of the staff (system) is
redrawn. In a multi-voice tune, a staff break must be
specified in each voice.
If the f is not given, the staff break is removed if it
occurs at the start or the end of a line.
Output a single line of text.
Leave vertical space of height length. length may be
negative, in which case the following material is moved
closer to that above.
Clefs can be given in K: and V: headers. The full syntax is
The ‘clef=’ can be omitted when the type is a clef name.
type denotes the clef type. It may be:
A note pitch (G, C, or F)
The pitch indicates which clef is meant: G is the treble
clef, C the alto clef and F the bass clef. It also gives the
name of the note that appears on the clef’s line.
A clef name
The available clef names are treble (clef gives the pitch for
G), alto or tenor (C), and bass (F)
perc or P In percussion mode, accidentals change the glyphs used for
note heads. By default, sharp notes are drawn as ‘x’ and flat
notes as circled ‘x’. This may be changed by redefining the
PostScript functions pshhd and pflhd.
none No clef will be displayed.
The line gives the number of the line within the staff that the base
clef will be written on. The default values are 2 for the treble clef,
3 for the alto clef, and 4 for the tenor and bass clefs.
The +8 and -8 options draw an 8 above or below the staff, respectively.
‘middle=pitch’ (or ‘m=pitch’, for short) is an alternative way of
defining the line number of the clef: The pitch indicates what note
will be displayed on the middle line of the staff.
When no clef is specified, clef changes between bass and treble will be
Multiple voices may be defined within the header or the tune using
V:name definition ...
where name is a word consisting of letters and digits only (like
violin1). In the tune body, the following notes refer to this voice
until another V: is encountered. A definition can be one of:
clef=... See above
name=name or nm=name
The name will be displayed at the beginning of the first
staff. It can contain \n sequences which will force line
breaks. If it contains whitespace it must be double-quoted.
subname=name or snm=name
The name will be displayed at the beginning of all staves
except for the first. It can contain \n sequences which will
force line breaks. If it contains whitespace it must be
merge The voice goes on the same staff as the previous voice.
up or down
Forces the direction of the stems for the voice.
dyn=up or dyn=down or dyn=auto
Forces positioning of dynamic marks (above or below the
staff) or reverts to automatic positioning (the default)
gstem=up or gstem=down or gstem=auto
Forces the direction of the stems of grace notes (always up
or always down) or reverts to automatic positioning (the
stem=auto Reverts to automatic positioning of note stems (up or down)
lyrics=up or lyrics=down or lyrics=auto
Places lyrics above or below the staff or reverts to
automatic positioning (the default)
gchord=up or gchord=down
Places guitar chords above (the default) or below the staff.
Sets the number of lines on the staff in question. (default:
Sets the scale of the associated staff up to 3. (default: 1)
All other definitions are ignored.
By default, each voice goes on its own staff. The ‘%%staves definition’
pseudo-comment can be used to control staff assignment. The definition
consists of voice names (from V:) and pairs of parentheses, braces or
· When a voice name is not within a pair of special characters, it
goes on a separate staff.
· For voice names enclosed in brackets, a bracket is displayed at
the beginning of each line that joins the staves of the voices in
· For voice names enclosed in braces, all the voices go on two
staves (keyboard score). There can be at most four voices between
a single pair of braces.
· For voice names enclosed in parentheses, all the voices appear on
a single staff.
The ‘|’ character prevents measure bars from being drawn between two
If ‘%%staves’ occurs in a tune, all the voices not mentioned will not
be output at all.
The %%score directive
The %%score directive occurs in the ABC draft 2.0 standard and is
similar to the %%staves specification described earlier. The rules
· Voice names within parentheses form a "voice group" and go on a
single staff. A voice name that is not within parentheses forms
its own voice group and goes on a staff by itself.
· Voice groups within braces form a "voice block" and are preceded
by a big brace in the output. This is especially useful for
· Voice groups or voice blocks within brackets form a "voice block"
and will be preceded by a big bracket in the output.
· If a ‘|’ character occurs between two voice groups or voice
blocks, the bar lines in all of the associated staves will be
· A single voice surrounded by two voice groups can be preceded by
an asterisk to make it into a ‘floating’ voice. This means that,
for each note of the voice, a separate decision is made whether
it is printed on the preceding or the following voice group’s
· Voices that appear in the tune body but not in the %%score
directive will not be output at all. If there is no %%score
directive, each voice will be output on its own staff.
· A %%score directive inside a tune resets the mechanism so voices
can be removed or added.
You can add notes to a staff without introducing a complete extra voice
by using the ampersand (&). A single measure can be split into two
The (&...&...&) construction allows splitting multiple measures:
|!f!(&GG<G|GG F=E| E2 E(_D/E)|_D D C D |C4- |C
&DC<C|CC_D C|=B,2_B,B, |_A,A,(G,/A,/)B,|F,4-|F,)zzD=E|
A double ampersand (&&) will allow overlaying more than two lines of
music but this feature has not yet been implemented.
Aligned lyrics under a staff are written as a w: line directly below
the staff line. For example:
w:Three blind mice, three blind mice
Each word in the w: line (delimited by blanks) is associated with one
note, in sequence. The following special symbols modify this behaviour:
* Skips one note.
- Splits a word into two syllables which are associated with
two adjacent notes. A ‘-’ is drawn between them.
| Advances to the next bar line
~ Is output as a space, but unites two words so they appear
under a single note.
_ Draws a thin underscore from the previous note to the next.
To include more than one line of lyrics, use multiple w: lines. To
include hyphens without splitting a word over multiple notes, use -.
If a word starts with a digit, this is interpreted as a stanza number
and outdented a bit to the left.
Slurs and ties
The direction of slurs and ties may be controlled using the (, and (’,
and -, and -’, constructions.
Microtone pitches are indicated by a fraction after an accidental, as
in 3/4c. When omitted, the numerator defaultes to 1 and the denominator
to 2 (so /c is the same as 1/2c). The numerator and denominator values
may not exceed 256. There is built-in support for quarter-tone
accidentals (1/2 and 3/2 sharps and flats); for other values, rendering
functions must be defined using %%postscript (see features.txt).
EPS files may be included inside tunes using the pseudo-comment ‘%%EPS
The original documentation can be found in files features.txt,
format.txt, and options.txt, which on a Debian system are in
This manual page was written by Anselm Lingnau <email@example.com> for
the Debian system (but may be used by others). Permission is granted
to copy, distribute and/or modify this document as long as its origin
is not misrepresented.